This study investigated the gamer characteristics and motivations among the members of two massively multiplayer online first person shooting games (MMOFPS). Responses of 5380 gamers were obtained through online administration of several measures on personal information, gaming motivations, social appearance anxiety, and self-efficacy. A structural equation model was proposed and confirmed in both games, which revealed that academic self-efficacy and general self-efficacy were highly related both of which predicted socialization, immersion and achievement motivations. Furthermore, social appearance anxiety influenced achievement motivations through the help of immersion. All motivation types were positively related. Additional analyses revealed statistically significant differences in playing time with regard to age and education, whereas the practical significance of these analyses required further research.
Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) are among the prominent virtual worlds where players spend significant amounts of their time to play, compete, and socialize with others around the virtual world (Williams, Yee, & Caplan, 2008). There are several types of MMOGS among which Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) and Massively Multiplayer Online First Person Shooter Games (MMOFPSs) are quite popular. In MMOGs, users delve into an ongoing scenario along with a customizable territory where they play with or against other human-controlled characters. In addition, they create personal or collective stories to advance in the game. Characteristics of MMOG players have been among the popular research trends regarding contemporary gaming contexts. Majority of such research focused particularly on the MMORPG genre, in which players create stories for their avatars through socializing with the avatars of others while advancing in the game. Relevant works on MMORPGs investigated gamer profiles (Dindar & Akbulut, 2014; Griffiths, Davies, & Chappel, 2004; Qian, 2010; Williams et al., 2008), gamer motivations (Dindar & Akbulut, 2014; Billeux et al., 2013; Yee, Ducheneaut, & Nelson, 2012), psychological well-being of gamers (Caplan, Williams, & Yee, 2009; Sublette & Mullan, 2012), and consequences of MMORPG play in players' daily lives (Hart et al., 2009; Lo, Wang, & Fang, 2005; Smyth, 2007). However, very few studies focused on the MMOFPSs despite its popularity among the MMOG genres (Jansz & Tanis, 2007).
6. Discussion and conclusion
The current study focused on gaming motivations of MMOFPS players with regard to social appearance anxiety, general self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy. In addition to a structural equation model proposal, gamer profiles and predictors of playing hours were investigated. CFAs across datasets revealed that selected measures, which were frequently used in international settings, were robust and reliable in the current context. In addition, the structural equation model revealed acceptable or perfect fit values, which could be used to explain the relationships among self-efficacy, social appearance anxiety and motivations of play. However, some relationships suggested in the current model can be regarded as extraordinary considering the contemporary gaming literature.