Objective This study proposes a multicriteria approach for the comparative analysis of the operational performance of Brazilian airport terminals.
Methodology Two multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) methods – De Borda and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) - were applied in an integrated manner to the database of the performance report from the Brazilian Department of Civil Aviation (Secretaria de Aviação Civil – SAC/PR), composed of evaluations issued by 18,062 respondents regarding 15 airport terminals, 12 of which are analyzed in this study considering 8 evaluation criteria. On the first level, the AHP method was used to assign weights to the criteria. On the second level, the De Borda method was applied to rank the alternatives.
Results The proposed method resulted in a final ranking of alternatives that was significantly different from the one presented in the SAC/PR report.
Contribution to knowledge The employment of the integrated De Borda-AHP method is not common and ensured a greater approximation with the overall user satisfaction indicator, showing that it is the more appropriate methodological option when compared with the arithmetic mean commonly used in public reports.
Contribution to society Based on the obtained ranking, air transport users will be able to have a more realistic comparative picture of the main airport terminals analyzed. Contribution to the management of the airport system This work contributes to the strategic planning and allocation of investments seeking to adapt and expand the sector, and also to the continuous improvement of the service levels provided at airports.
Civil aviation plays a strategic role in development, either by the transport of people and goods it provides, or by the generation of jobs and financial transactions, particularly in a country of continental size such as Brazil. In alignment with its development plans, Brazil needs to devote efforts to make an airport infrastructure available that is consistent with the circulation of people by air forecast for the next few years, because in addition to the growing domestic circulation, the country will host large-scale international events. For the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, for example, more than 10,500 athletes from around 205 nations, in addition to thousands of press and support professionals and tourists from all over the world are expected.
As a result of these activities, various factors associated with the Brazilian airport infrastructure and issues related to the operational performance of the airports, in addition to the way these are assessed from a passenger's perspective, began to be the subject of debate. The uncertainty regarding the existing infrastructure's capacity to meet the demand in a timely manner and according to passenger expectation was put on the agenda. As such, it has become important to identify methodologies that are able to assess the operational performance of Brazilian airports in order to enable the planning of future availability in a way that is consistent with the quality standards in force.
This study has reached its goal of proposing a multicriteria model for the evaluation of the quality of services provided in civil aviation airport terminals. The application of the proposed model to the specific case of Brazilian airport terminals has enabled their ranking with respect to the quality of services provided from the point of view of the users of these services.
The use of the AHP method for the mapping of weights differentiates this work from others realized previously, since it allows for the assessment of the consistency of judgments issued by experts. In general, customer and expert have discordant interests. However, the judgments by experts were an alternative to a limitation present in the SAC/PR survey. It is suggested the inclusion of the judgments on the importance of criteria in the standardized questionnaires.