Underpinned by social exchange and social information processing theories, our study proposes and tests a research model that investigates flight attendants' perceptions of corporate social responsibility practices. Data came from flight attendants in a major low-cost carrier at different, successive points in time. The structural equation modeling results reveal that work engagement is the underlying mechanism through which corporate social responsibility, as manifested by the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic practices, is linked to flight attendants' career satisfaction and voice behavior. Simply stated, the empirical data support all hypotheses and the research model we have proposed is viable. The results have important implications about flight attendants' perceptions of corporate social responsibility practices and the aforesaid outcomes.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR), which refers to “contextspecific organizational actions and policies that take into account stakeholders' expectations and the triple bottom line of economic, social, and environmental performance” (Aguinis, 2011, p. 855), enables the airline companies to enhance their business performance (e.g., Kuo et al., 2016; Lee and Park, 2016). According to Carroll (1991), there are four indicators of CSR: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic. The economic indicator refers to the corporation's economic responsibilities in terms of competitiveness, profitability, and operational efficiency, while the legal indicator refers to the corporation's obligation to adhere to the rules and regulations in the marketplace (Carroll, 1991; Lee et al., 2012). The ethical indicator refers to the corporation's responsibility to recognize and respect ethical norms and be fair in conducting performance beyond its legal obligation and the philanthropic indicator is associated with the corporation's responsibility to be good corporate citizens (e.g., promotion of human welfare) (Carroll, 1991; Lee et al., 2012).
7.3. Suggestions for future research
Several limitations of our study that highlight a need for future research should be reported. First, we limited our focus to WE as a mediator pertaining to its relationship with CSR, career satisfaction, and voice behavior. Future research may take into account other critical variables such as job embeddedness, psychological contract, or customer orientation to ascertain their mediating roles in the association between CSR and career satisfaction and voice behavior (cf. Fu, 2013; Karatepe, 2013; Yeh, 2012). Second, our study used flight attendants' perceptions of career satisfaction and voice behavior as the two important outcomes. Future empirical studies may consider other critical outcomes such as service-sales ambidexterity, service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors, or brand citizenship behaviors to gauge their relationships with CSR and WE (cf. Erkmen and Hancer, 2015; Tang and Tsaur, 2016; Yu et al., 2012). Lastly, to enhance the database for generalization and allow comparisons, future studies may obtain data from other low-cost airline companies in Turkey. In addition, assessing the study relationships based on cross-national data would be useful.