نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Building Information Modeling has become a widely accepted tool used to overcome the many hurdles that currently face the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industries. However, implementing such a system is always complex, and the recent introduction of BIM does not allow organizations to build their experience on acknowledged standards and procedures. Moreover, data on implementation projects is still disseminated and fragmentary. The objective of this study is to develop an assistance model for BIM implementation. Solutions to evolve towards a better integrated and better used BIM are proposed, taking into account the different maturity levels of each organization. Indeed, based on the widely recognized Critical Success Factors, concrete activities helping implementation are identified and can be undertaken according to a previous maturity evaluation of an organization.
Building Information Modeling by its very nature falls into the category of collaborative tools that aim for data interoperability and life cycle management. Integrated information management has become an increasing matter of concern despite the fact that ERP solutions exist since the seventies. At the same time, numerous studies on 3D modeling have shown its benefits; these are especially noteworthy in the aircraft industry . After a couple decades of efforts focused on 2D-modeling from the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, interest in a new way of leading projects finally grew in the late nineties, and the BIM initials first appeared in 2004 in the normal AEC vocabulary .
BIM has now proven its potential in terms of solving some of the major problems encountered in the AEC industry. Surprisingly, the latter has seen its productivity stagnate and even shrink a little from 1964 to now, whereas other industries have performed much better . Explanations for this can be found in the high amount of small firms in this sector, unable to invest to improve their practices, or in the complexity of setting up an appropriate environment for numerous stakeholders to work together. Another relevant figure puts to light the fact that interoperability deficiencies increase construction costs by $6.12 per square foot . Arayici and al. sum it up, declaring that the AEC industry needs to find a way to raise productivity, efficiency, quality and sustainability and lower lifecycle costs, lead times and duplication .
In response to the difficulties encountered in adopting and efficiently using BIM in industry, this paper proposes a model that brings together BIM maturity, plays a preponderant role to approach implementation, critical success factors and practical actions, as depicted in the Françoise article for ERPs systems . In addition to partly summarizing the existing literature on this subject, the contribution made was fulfilling the lack of guidance for BIM implementation projects by providing a structured approach to it.
However, several improvements could be imagined and applied to this work. Exhaustivity is a first limitation. In fact, as mentioned earlier, the emphasis is on issues that have a strong impact on both implementation and utilization. This choice was made because of the link between CSFs and CMM, which leaves out many implementation questions and assesses maturity and the current use of BIM. To stress critical success factors, it would be a great leap forward to determine and validate a list that entirely takes into account every issue implied in an adoption. This task has begun in the work presented in this paper, but is not the principal objective and no validation or any examination by experts was performed. Once again, taking a close watch on literature dedicated to ERPs would be one approach of interest, as much research deals with the subject and has proven to be realistic and complete.