نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
In the present work we analyse the implications of complexity in the behaviour of organisations, and how they should adapt to this complexity instead of trying to exclude it. We divide the paper in seven different sections: after a brief introduction (Section 1) we comment the influence of complexity in the evolution of scientific paradigms (Section 2); in Section 3 we analyse the meaning of the term ‘complexity’ and the characteristics of a complex system; in Section 4 complexity and chaos are related, conforming what is named chaordic system thinking; in Section 5 we analyse the shift of paradigm in management and the implications of the new complex paradigm in organisations; in Section 6 we analyse the meaning of complex organisation; at last, in Section 7 we expose the new tools in organisation to cope with complexity.
The notion or organisation has evolved along time, from a rigid state to a flexible one. This new organisation has a new dynamics, characterised by adaptation and emergence. Leadership and management skills have to evolve to cope with this new environment.
Complexity science tries to study, describe and explain the behaviour of complex adaptative systems. This is a multidisciplinary science, compounded by different interrelated blocks and, as Schneider and Somers (2006) points out, there are three inter-related building blocks of complexity science: non-linear dynamics, chaos theory and adaptation/evolution. Complexity science is concerned with complex dynamic systems which are unpredictable and, at the same time, generate new properties and spontaneously self-organise into new structures. As Stacey points out, organisations are non-linear webs or human interactions, capable of stable and unstable behaviours. The successful organisation works in the creative intermediate zone between stability and instability, the named ‘chaotic zone’ (Stacey, 1993). Managers do not have to seek equilibrium, but rather to scope with change and innovation, being flexible and adaptative.
7 Conclusions: tools for complex management
After all stated above, we have to reconsider traditional organisation and therefore traditional management too. The new manager’s skills have to be able to cope with complexity, taking advantage of it instead of unsuccessfully trying to escape.
So the tools for managing under complexity are (Snowden and Boone, 2007; Olmedo et al., 2007): favour discussion, dissent and diversity to encourage the emergence of patterns and ideas; set general barriers to delineate behaviours, not to eliminate the necessary uncertainty to let the system self-organise, because an excessive control may inhibit progress possibilities; combine common, everyday management with complex, non-ordinary management making use not only of quantitative but, also and fundamentally, qualitative experience; stimulate creativity to favour success requires continuous creativity, generating uncertainty in a deliberate way to favour creativity and innovation, stimulating attractors, emergent structures to gain coherence; create environment appropriate to take advantage of new unexpected opportunities that may emerge; allow time for communication and reflection; provide clear and easy communication tools; stimulate adaptation and flexibility, to substitute general qualitative thinking models instead to govern organisation dynamics instead of forecasting and control and stimulate ethical values in organisations.