Background and Objective
Patients with cardiovascular problems experience sleep disorders. Due to the importance of adequate sleep and rest for the growth and repair of damaged cells, it is necessary to use appropriate interventions to improve it. This study determined the effect of sleep intervention programs during cardiac rehabilitation on patients’ sleep quality. Materials and Methods. In this quasi-experimental study with unequal control group design, 35 individuals participated in the cardiac rehabilitation program as the experimental group and 35 served as the control group. The program included 12 weeks of exercise, 3 sessions per week, 3 sessions of training programs each lasting for 45 minutes, and a special two-session sleep improvement program. Data were collected using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods.
There were not any significant differences between the two groups in age, sex, marital status, smoking, and indication for cardiac rehabilitation (P > 0:05). The scores of sleep quality of patients were 9:2±1:58 before and 4:40 ± 1:14 after intervention in the experimental group and 9:02 ± 2:56 before and 7:48 ± 1:86 after intervention in the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups before intervention (P = 0:73). yet there was a significant difference after intervention (P = 0:0001). In addition, scores of sleep quality of patients were significantly different in the experimental and control groups before and after intervention (P = 0:0001).
Findings indicated that the quality of sleep of cardiac patients improved after the sleep intervention program during the cardiac rehabilitation program. Therefore, it is suggested to implement sleep improvement programs for cardiac patient care as an effective, easy, and feasible technique. In addition, it is necessary to pay more attention to the sleep improvement program in cardiac rehabilitation. Trial Registration. The trial was retrospectively registered on https://en.irct.ir/trial/50799 on 14 September 2020 (14.09.2020) with registration number IRCT20140307016870N6.
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and disability in the world and in Iran. Some studies show that patients suffer from sleep disorders (SD) after heart accidents and coronary artery surgery . Sleep is an important modulator of heart function and can thus lead to lower activity and cardiac load, so that SDs such as insomnia and hypersomnia have also been considered important factors in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases .
Sleep disorder over a significant period of time can also disrupt many aspects of quality of life, including general health, physical, cognitive, and psychological functions, and daily activities [1, 3].
The findings of the present study indicated an improvement in SQ using a sleep intervention program during the CR. However, SQ also improved over time in patients who did not participate in CR, yet this did not lead to acceptable SQ. Therefore, improving patients’ SQ requires a team or multidisciplinary performance. Health care providers are advised to provide other care for heart patients, measure their SQ, and make appropriate interventions to improve it. On the other hand, they should use sleep improvement programs as easy and applicable techniques and educate patients. They are also advised to teach health care workers the importance of sleep and its quality and ways to improve it in training programs as essential requirements for human health, especially patients. Further attention should be paid to the CR issue, and rehabilitation centers should be developed to provide facilities for these programs.