The article reports on the validation of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) attitude questionnaire and discusses differences between online and paper modes of administration, drawing on a sample of 1,769 Vietnamese undergraduates. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to explore and assess the factor structure of the CALL instrument and specify the equivalence between the two versions of the questionnaire. Rasch model analysis was used to evaluate the overall fit and construct uni-dimensionality of the instrument. The findings of the study suggested a six-factor structure for the adapted questionnaire as well as both reliability and validity in the Vietnamese context. No significant difference was found between the two modes of administration as regards the construct and item levels of the questionnaire, although the paper-version was superior to the online version according to results from the Rasch model analysis. Hence, the instrument can be used in online and paper modes to measure Vietnamese tertiary students’ attitudes to the integration of technology into language learning. The study finds that further research is called for if the two modes of administration of the questionnaire are used in other contexts for teaching English as a foreign language (EFL).
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), which is defined as the process by which students use computers to improve their language learning (Beatty, 2010), has for years been an important part of acquiring a second language. CALL can aid students in different learning tasks, support the knowledge-constructed classroom (Muir-Herzig, 2004), empower students to be responsible for their learning, and create more opportunities to practice the language (Almekhlafi, 2006; Nguyen and Habok, 2021 , 2022). The history of CALL could be categorized in three ways: (1) behaviorist, (2) communicative, and (3) integrative (Ürün, 2015). At the outset, the behaviorist approach to CALL involved repetitive language drills for instructional purposes. A communicative pedagogy then replaced behaviorism, thus creating more opportunities for students to practice through digital devices. The changing needs in language education in the 21st century paved the way for integrative CALL, allowing students to practice their language skills in authentic environments while improving their technological capabilities. With the sheer growth of information and communication technology (ICT), the term CALL has been extended beyond the computer to applications (“apps”) and digital devices (Tafazoli et al., 2018). It has even been proposed that a culture component be incorporated in CALL to become “Computer-- assisted Languacuture Learning” (Abolghasseminits et al., 2013; Chun et al., 2016; Zhu et al., 2009).
9. Discussion and conclusions
This study provides a new structure of dimensionality for an instrument that assesses students' attitudes to CALL (Nagy and Habok, 2018 ; Habok and Nagy, 2017 ) in a Vietnamese EFL context. The study confirmed the validity of the adapted questionnaire and compared the validity of the instrument between online and paper modes at the construct and item levels. The questionnaire was translated into Vietnamese with due attention to technical terms and regional culture. Some adjustments were made to certain key terms on the questionnaire so that all the items would be appropriate for Vietnamese students and their knowledge. The final version of the adapted questionnaire was distributed to EFL learners electronically and physically. Both online and paper data were then used to validate the questionnaire. The collected online and paper data were initially used for EFA, which showed the structure of the CALL instrument in a Vietnamese EFL context with six components (which were different from those of the original version). The labels for these six factors were modified to fit with the items because some had been reconstructed in different factors: III (6 items), IAA (6 items), IMS (5 items), ELA (3 items), EUITL (4 items), and EIFML (3 items). As with the original instrument developed by Habok and Nagy (2017) , although the instrument was structured differently, three basic elements (cognition, affect, and behavior) were reflected in these factors on the questionnaire. Six factors on the adapted questionnaire were re-organized on the basis of the three basic elements of attitude: cognitive (III, IMS, and EIFML), affective (IAA), and behavioral (EUITL and ELA). The current study takes the same approach as studies whose authors investigated all three basic elements or merely selected one out of three factors and linked them to other components to assess learners' attitudes to CALL. The factors were also grouped and renamed based on the fundamental structure of attitude (Teo, 2006; Vandewaetere and Desmet, 2009). However, Nagy and Habok (2018) and in the current study, the cognitive component of CALL attitude is broader than that of previous studies. It not only includes learners’ knowledge of the integration of technology into the language learning process but also their perception of materials or devices other than laptops in the modern classroom, such as tablets and smartphones. Although the six factors on the questionnaire were re-organized into the three classic elements, as noted above, the affective and cognitive components are not clear-cut. This has also been explored in previous research (e.g., Ajzen, 2005), and these two dimensions of attitude could be categorized in one component.