نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Research has identified a wide range of psychosocial factors associated to choosing to engage in ongoing cancer screenings. Nevertheless, a systematic review of the theoretical frameworks and constructs underpinning studies on breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening participation has yet to be conducted. As part of the action-research project “Miriade,” the present study aims to identifying the main theoretical frameworks and constructs adopted in the literature over the past five years to explain cancer screening participation. According to the PRISMA guidelines, a search of the MEDLINE/PubMed and PsycINFO databases was made. Empirical studies conducted from 2017 to 2021 were included. The following keywords were used: breast OR cervical OR colorectal screening AND adhesion OR participation OR engagement AND theoretical framework OR conceptual framework OR theory. Overall, 24 articles met the inclusion criteria. Each theoretical framework highlighted clinical and psychosocial constructs of cancer screening participation, focusing on the individuals (psycho-emotional functioning and skills plan) and/or the health services perspectives. Findings from the present study acknowledge the plurality of the theoretical frameworks and constructs adopted to predict or promote breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening adhesion and the need for new research efforts to improve the effectiveness of cancer screening promotion interventions.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide (WHO, 2020). However, a substantial proportion of cancer diagnoses could be avoided and survival rates could be improved through the implementation of prevention strategies, such as cancer screenings. Cancer screenings entail detecting cancer at an asymptomatic stage of development (Ogden et al., 2012; Rex et al., 2000), identifing among apparently healthy people those who are at high risk, as well as to intervene early and more effectively.
Therefore, the healthcare systems worldwide are making efforts to ensure equity in access to timely, specialized, and free cancer screening programs. This is done by inviting the target populations to participate in tailored screenings programs that, according to the indications of the Ministry of Health, are for the prevention of breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. For the risk of breast cancer, women aged 50 to 69 are invited every two years for a bilateral mammogram; for the risk of cervical cancer, women aged between 25 and 64 are invited every three years to carry out Pap test or human papillomavirus [HPV] testing; for the risk of colorectal cancer, people from 50 to 74 years of age are invited every two years, without distinction of sex, to high-sensitivity fecal occult blood tests [FOBTs] or colonoscopy (WHO, 2020).
From the results, it appears clear that the implementation of an individualistic approach is not sufficient to bring along desired preventive choices. All groups of reasons, individual, relational and social context are involved in the decision-making process. To develop successful interventions to improve participation in the context of cancer screening, the need to use theory in the design of the intervention that aims at cognitive and behavioral constructs, aims at social influences, the emotional aspects of the subject and accessibility and acceptance of the context is evident.
We think it is useful to consider the development of an interpretative reading that considers them as psychological functioning axes to be considered in an integrated manner in understanding the phenomenon of participation in cancer screening.