This study examines the relationship between parenting patterns and children’s school achievements in Greek society. Parenting practices and parenting style are two child-rearing dynamics which were selected to assess children’s school achievements in this study. A total of 101 participants who have at least one child attaining elementary school and who reside in Greece answered an online questionnaire. In line with previous findings, the aim of this study is to examine associations between parenting and primary school students’ achievements in Greece. The initial assumption was that both parenting practices and parenting style are associated with academic achievement. Thus, the primary hypotheses under examination in this study are (A) that authoritarian parenting pattern is negatively associated with school achievement; (B) that authoritative parenting style is positively associated with school achievement; and (C) that parental involvement affects children and their school performance. The results show a positive relation between authoritative parenting styles and children’s school achievement, although the authoritarian style was associated with lower levels of school achievement. Additionally, the results indicate that the authoritarian style combined with involvement practices is a significant predictor of grades. The more authoritative means that parents use to socialize with their children, the more likely they are to achieve their parenting goals. Nevertheless, it is of critical importance for parents to focus on the learning process and not on the outcome.
This research examines the relationship between parenting patterns and children’s school performance in Greek society, making it easy to understand that there is a high risk of negative parental involvement, behavior, and practices that could undoubtedly affect children and their school performance. Children, due to their sensitive age, are struggling to manage parental intervention in their school and personal lives; as a result, they often react and are influenced negatively. It is time to realize that parents’ behavior regarding children’s school performance and grades has associated risks. There is a lack of studies directly focused on the link between risk and parental practices, as these practices affect mainly the child’s behavior and their educational advancement in general.
According to the literature, parenting style and parenting practices are important indicators of children’s wider accomplishments. The following studies have shown that parental behaviors apply differently to each ethnicity or culture. According to Shumow et al. (1998), African–American parents are inclined to be less permissive and harsher than white parents, while Kokkinos and Vlavianou (2019) cited that Greek parents are overly involved in their children’s rearing and are overprotective and severe. According to Darling and Steinberg (1993), parenting practices (PP) refer to particular behaviors that parents use in order to develop their children’s social skills. For example, parents enact daily socialization practices (e.g., assisting with children’s homework, participating in teacher–parent meetings, etc.) in order to help their children succeed in school. Regarding school outcomes, these practices can be distinguished into three constructs: parental involvement; parental goals, aspirations and values; and parental monitoring (Spera 2005). Several studies have shown that parental involvement is a complex construct that has been defined in several ways (Gugiu et al. 2019). Based on Grolnick and Pomerantz (2022), parent involvement in children’s schooling facilitates children’s motivation, engagement, and learning, especially when such involvement is autonomy-supportive and affectively positive. However, parent involvement can have costs for children when it is controlling and affectively negative (Grolnick and Pomerantz 2022).
The current research has several limitations. Although the sample was realistically diverse, it was limited to students attending fourth, fifth, and six elementary grades. A larger-scale study entailing more participants would be preferable and representable. In future research, it would be worthwhile to use a longitudinal design involving a wider range of schoolchildren. A limitation of this study was that school grades were selfreported. There was a hidden assumption that parents had complete information and that they provided it. Another limitation can refer to possible social desirability bias in the consent form of the questionnaire, specifically in the section stating that, “Parenting plays an indispensable role in child development.” An additional limitation is the cross-sectional nature of the study and its participant number, which prevents the generalizability of results and the assumption of casual relationships between the investigated variables. Although this research controlled for a number of parenting patterns as potential confounders, there are likely residual, confounding dynamics for which evidence was not available as to the interplay of children’s motivation with parenting. Several studies had predicted that motivation is linked with school achievement and is mediated by parenting (Józsa et al. 2019; Gonzalez and Wolters 2006). As children’s socialization depends on their parents, according to Chen et al. (2019), and children’s and parents’ perceptions and beliefs differ, these differences lead to diverse implications for behavior and motivation. Further research is needed to examine additional, complex models of personality and their interactions with school performance. In the same manner, children’s temperaments and personality characteristics in general were not taken into consideration. Dimensions of personality variables could have been essential because, as Barchard and Christensen (2007) supported, personality and intelligence could predict better academic achievement. Lastly, while the method is reliable enough, it has several limitations and a broader and more current revision of methodology would be given more weight to the validity of the procedure.
Some future research that could be conducted could have a larger sample size of participants in order to control the risk of reporting false-negative or false-positive findings, thus leading to more accurate and representative results; Finally, the impact of different ethnicities also needs to be assessed in order to achieve a respective comparison.