نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Sense of place describes people's perceptions of the distinguishing qualities and attributes of an environment that shape positive feelings of attachment and promote mental wellbeing. The purpose of the research was to identify the qualities and attributes of project work environments that contribute to the development of a sense of place, and to develop and test a survey instrument designed to measure these qualities and attributes. Characteristics of project work environments with the potential to create a positive wellbeing-promoting sense of place were identified from the extant literature. A survey instrument was developed, drawing on existing validated scales, to measure the extent to which a positive sense of place is present in project work environments. The survey tool was tested in two studies conducted in construction projects in New Zealand. The first study tested the construct validity and reliability of the survey instrument, and the extent to which the proposed components were associated with workers’ positive mental wellbeing. The second study confirmed that the sense of place components are distinct and can be measured reliably using the survey instrument. Organisations can potentially use the survey instrument to evaluate the extent to which project work environments are supportive of workers’ mental wellbeing, and to inform the development of strategies specifically focused on creating work environments that are likely to promote mental wellbeing amongst project workers.
1.1. Background and aims
It is often stated that project work is stressful (Richmond & Skitmore, 2006; Haynes & Love, 2004; Leung et al., 2008; Aguilar Velasco & Wald, 2022). Stressors attributed to project work (that have been linked to mental unwellness) include: the occurrence of unexpected incidents that thwart the attainment of project goals (Gallstedt, ¨ 2003); a lack of resources (Richmond & Skitmore, 2006); project overload (Zika-Viktorsson et al., 2006); goal ambiguity, insufficient time, conflicting roles and adversarial or dysfunctional relationships (Darling & Whitty, 2019); excessive involvement in work, destabilisation of professional identities and unclear or precarious career pathways for project workers (Asquin et al., 2010).
The widespread acceptance that project work is intrinsically stressful has prompted researchers to consider the way in which project workers cope with work stress (Richmond & Skitmore, 2006; Haynes & Love, 2004). While the use of appropriate coping strategies is important in helping individual workers to manage work stress, there also exists an organisational duty (under work health and safety legislation) to provide workplaces that are healthy and safe (both physically and psychologically). This duty extends beyond helping individual workers to cope with adverse work conditions and requires that attention be focused on the creation of mentally healthy workplaces. Therefore, there is a strong case for organisations to consider ways to create work environments that promote project workers’ mental wellbeing.
Some research also suggests that working in projects is something of a ‘double-edged sword’ because, although it has the potential to be stressful, project work can be highly motivating and more rewarding than routinised work (Gallestedt, 2003). In fact, harmful levels of work stress may not be endemic to projects. For example, Darling and Whitty (2019) argue that many of the stressors they observed in their study of project work were related to deficiencies in delivery and management which could be resolved by improving project management competency. This argument is also supported by Chiocchio et al. (2010) who report that workers’ increased time involvement in project-based work (up to a threshold point) is associated with lower levels of psychological distress and higher level of psychological wellbeing. Importantly this finding was only significant for work in projectised organisations, i.e. those that work in projects often. Chiocchio et al. (2010) suggest this may be because, in projectised organisations, project management practices are more mature and workers are provided with clear goals, realistic deadlines, appropriate resourcing, multidisciplinary challenges and opportunities for growth. Thus, the extent to which project work is experienced as stressful or harmful may depend upon the ‘health’ of the work environment within which the work takes place.
The research developed and tested a survey instrument designed to measure characteristics of a project work environment that have the potential to promote positive mental wellbeing amongst workers. The survey instrument was tested in two separate studies and found to perform well in two different project contexts. The component measures included in the survey instrument demonstrated good discriminant validity and internal consistency reliability. The criterion validity of the survey instrument was evident in strong and consistent positive correlations with a measure of mental wellbeing. The survey instrument appears to be a robust and useful measurement tool that can help be used by researchers and project management teams to inform the development of health-promotion interventions that target the project work environment, rather than individual worker behaviours.