نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
The immunology field has invested great efforts and ingenuity to characterize the various immune cell types and elucidate their functions. However, accumulating evidence indicates that current technologies and classification schemes are limited in their ability to account for the functional heterogeneity of immune processes. Single-cell genomics hold the potential to revolutionize the way we characterize complex immune cell assemblies and study their spatial organization, dynamics, clonal distribution, pathways, function, and crosstalks. In this Perspective, we consider recent and forthcoming technological and analytical advances in single-cell genomics and the potential impact of those advances on the future of immunology research and immunotherapy.
The immune system is a complex network composed of various interacting cell types and functional states (Figure 1). It is one of the most dynamic and plastic systems in the human body, present in nearly every tissue of the organism, and involved in a wide range of homeostatic activities—from tissue development and remodeling (Wynn et al., 2013) to metabolism and neuronal maintenance (Brestoff and Artis, 2015; Schwartz et al., 2013) to clearance of debris and cells that need to be eliminated (Devitt and Marshall, 2011). Its function or dysfunction is even more pronounced in pathology, where various immune cells play a central role in pathogen and tumor clearance or escape, as well as in metabolic, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. Immune processes are mediated by the crosstalk between many types of cells—tissue resident as well as circulating immune cells—all interacting in specific micro-environmental contexts while communicating with the local tissue. Characterizing these cellular networks, the participating cell types, their unique pathways, and genes, as well as their interactions and responses to environmental cues, is key to successfully manipulating the immune system in order to harness its unique therapeutic potential (Sharma and Allison, 2015).