نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Many promising MRI approaches for research or clinical management of multiple sclerosis (MS) have recently emerged, or are under development or refi nement. Advanced MRI methods need to be assessed to determine whether they allow earlier diagnosis or better identifi cation of phenotypes. Improved post-processing should allow more effi cient and complete extraction of information from images. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy should improve in sensitivity and specifi city with higher fi eld strengths and should enable the detection of a wider array of metabolites. Diff usion imaging is moving closer to the goal of defi ning structural connectivity and, thereby, determining the functional signifi cance of lesions at specifi c locations. Cell-specifi c imaging now seems feasible with new magnetic resonance contrast agents. The imaging of myelin water fraction brings the hope of providing a specifi c measure of myelin content. Ultra-high-fi eld MRI increases sensitivity, but also presents new technical challenges. Here, we review these recent developments in MRI for MS, and also look forward to refi nements in spinal-cord imaging, opticnerve imaging, perfusion MRI, and functional MRI. Advances in MRI should improve our ability to diagnose, monitor, and understand the pathophysiology of MS.
MRI is playing an increasing role in the scientifi c investigation and clinical management of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, several limitations have emerged, such as the low sensitivity of conventional MRI to grey-matter involvement and to diff use damage in white matter. In addition, conventional MRI shows only limited associations with clinical status. As new uses for conventional MRI are developed and non-conventional MRI methods continue to advance, we are gaining insight into the full extent of tissue damage in patients with MS. However, there is a need to refi ne the techniques and clinically validate the available tools so that they can be properly applied. Our aim is to review the most promising MRI approaches in MS that have recently emerged or are currently under development. We will explain how these new techniques will fi ll voids in our current understanding of MS and improve our ability to diagnose, monitor, and defi ne the pathophysiology of the disease. The topics will include diagnosis and classifi cation of patients, new uses of conventionally obtained MRI data, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS), magnetisation transfer imaging, diff usion imaging, functional MRI, optic-nerve imaging, spinal-cord imaging, myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, perfusion MRI, and MRI at fi eld strengths higher than 1·5 T. The sections begin with a brief summary of the current status, followed by a discussion of unmet needs and the new techniques or approaches to address those needs.