نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Continuous rapid economic growth has made China one of largest economies in the world. Chinese women have been playing an important role in many aspects of socio-economic activities. However, in recent decades overall women’s political participation in China has not been significantly improved. The spindled shape of women’s representation in the power structures will not support a sustainable improvement in women’s political participation in China. This paper argues that high-profile women politicians would contribute to political gender equity, but a broader participation in politics from the grassroots female population is more important and fundamental. Therefore, a proactive policy in women’s political participation will only work well when it not only focuses on the middle level of power structures but also on the participation of grassroots groups.
Women’s Status and Their Political Participation
The main slogan of the 1995 UN Women’s Conference was “parity”. It suggested that “gender equity” was an equal 50 percent representation of men and women in power structures (Rosen 1995). Realization of ‘‘gender equity’’ is a multi-dimensional process of achieving basic capabilities, legal rights and participation in key social, economic, political and cultural domains (Healey 2009; Moghadam and Senftova 2005). It is clear that “political participation” is only one part of a “gender equity” measurement framework, which was suggested by Moghadam and Senftova (2005) to include 44 indicators within seven domains. However, whether at the local or national level, for women to attain empowerment, participation and rights in the formal political sphere are key indicators (Moghadam and Senftova 2005).