نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Parental care, the investment in young after fertilization, may not be a behavior that immediately jumps to your mind when you think of fishes. However, many fishes provide care for their young, and they care for the young in different ways. Which parent provides the care also varies greatly from fish species to fish species. The impressive variation in parental-care tactics has made fishes an excellent group for testing our understanding of how parental care evolves. Indeed, studies with bony fishes have helped shape our theoretical understanding of how sexual selection operates. In contrast, the physiological mechanisms underlying parental behavior in fishes remain poorly explored. Although to a limited degree prolactin, isotocin, and androgens have all been investigated in the context of parental care, the behavioral physiology of parental care in fishes is very much in its infancy. In this article, we examine the major forms of care and the common patterns of care found in fishes. We then provide an explanation for these patterns based on the costs and benefits of parental care. Finally, we review the current available information on physiological underpinnings of fish parental-care behavior, albeit limited, and suggest areas for much-needed future research.