نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Bone mineral density is one of the most important factors to measure bone quality. It is a biophysical parameter of critical experimental importance, and has been used in poultry production as a tool to assess bone quality because it is a reliable and non-invasive method. Bones have an essential role in normal growth and development of vertebrate individuals. Its development process is a complex sequence of interrelated events in space and time, leading to bone formation. There are two processes of bone development: intramembranous bone formation, and endochondral bone formation. Cell mechanisms are identical in both process, with intramembranous bone formation being responsible for the definitive shape of a limited number of bones which are not pre-formed by cartilage. Endochondral bone formation involves the activities responsible for the formation of bones that bear weight, which also are responsible for the elongation of most skeletal mass during growth. The continuous addition of cartilage and its later replacement by bone are the essence of the process of elongation (Howlet, 1980; Banks, 1991; Thorp, 1992; Almeida Paz et al., 2005).