Work–family scholars now recognize the potential positive effects of participation in one life domain (i.e., work or family) on performance in other life domains. We examined how employees might benefit from team resources, which are highly relevant to the modern workplace, in both work and nonwork domains via work–family enrichment. Using the Resource–Gain–Development model (Wayne, Grzywacz, Carlson, & Kacmar, 2007), we explored how team resources contribute to enrichment and resulting project and family satisfaction. Using multilevel structural equation modeling (ML-SEM) to analyze student data (N= 344) across multiple class projects, we demonstrated that individuals with team resources were more likely to experience both work-to-family and family-to-work enrichment. Further, enrichment mediated the relationship between team resources and satisfaction with the originating domain.
Work–family enrichment describes the process by which experiences in one role of an individual's life improve their performance in other roles (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006). Enrichment between work and family roles can occur in both directions—family-to-work and work-to-family. Employees who experience enrichment between work and family tend to demonstrate improved physical health, lower absenteeism, and higher job performance (Van Steenbergen & Ellemers, 2009). Furthermore, enrichment is positively related to job, family, and life satisfaction and lower intentions to turnover (Aryee, Srinivas, & Tan, 2005; Carlson, Grzywacz, & Zivnuska, 2009; Hill, 2005; McNall, Masuda, & Nicklin, 2010; Wayne, Musisca, & Fleeson, 2004). Despite these positive outcomes, scholars have only begun to explore the many aspects of the work domain that contribute to the experience of enrichment. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of team-based resources in contributing to work–family enrichment and subsequent domain satisfaction. As organizations increasingly rely on teams (Tekleab, Quigley, & Tesluk, 2009), it is critical to understand the role of this dimension of the work domain in developing work–family enrichment. Using the Resource–Gain– Development model (Wayne, Grzywacz, Carlson, & Kacmar, 2007) as a theoretical foundation, we suggest that teams may offer resources at work that contribute to the experience of work–family enrichment and subsequent satisfaction. Therefore, we develop a model that posits work-to-family and family-to-work enrichment as mediators between team resources (i.e., cohesion, familiarity, and similarity) and satisfaction with both the team project and with family. This study contributes to the understanding of work–family enrichment in a number of ways. First, this is the first study to our knowledge that examines the work–family interface in relation to a set of social resources particularly relevant for modern workers– resources garnered from involvement in teamwork. As organizations increasingly rely on teams (Tekleab et al., 2009), examining this set of resources holds practical implications for managers who wish to help their employees experience greater work–family enrichment, especially in light of the positive outcomes that can result. Second, we utilize a unique sample because many of our team members participate in multiple teams with differing team members and differing experiences of resources, allowing us to test this phenomenon across multiple situations for each of these participants. Finally, whereas a resource-based framework has been widely applied to the study of work–family conflict (Geurts, Beckers, Taris, Kompier, & Smulders, 2009; Grandey & Cropanzano, 1999; Halbesleben, Harvey, & Bolino, 2009),Wayne et al. (2007) proposed that such a framework can also contribute to our understanding of work–family enrichment. Thus, we provide an empirical test of the Resource–Gain–Development model, which has not yet been empirically tested. In doing so, we incorporate both antecedents and consequences of work–family enrichment.