نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Female migraineurs frequently report a severe migraine headache a few days prior to, during, or immediately following a menstrual period. Menstrual migraines were identified in a study of 193 migraineurs who participated in a controlled, experimental, outcome study of non-drug treatments for the control of migraine headaches. Participants were required to monitor their daily headache activity and drug usage for 36 weeks and were assigned to one of four groups: (1) No Treatment; (2) Autogenic Phrases; (3) Electromyographic Feedback, and (4) Thermal Feedback. Data were reduced and analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance and covariance. There was a tendency for all groups to improve over the 36 weeks. No significant difference was found among the four groups in headache improvement.
Migraine headache afflicts three to four times as many females as males. According to Diamond and Dalessio, about 70% of the women seen by physicians for migraine report that some of their attacks occur prior to, during, or at the end of their menstruation.1 Female migraineurs frequently report an absence or decrease in migraine activity during pregnancy and after menopause. Physicians have tended to label all migraines, including menstrual migraine, as a psychosomatic illness. Various theories of the causation of the menstrual migraine, however, indicate its causation may be more on a physiological basis than a psychological one. One theory states that menstrual migraine is specifically related to a decline in the plasma level of estrogen, which occurs during the premenstrual phase.2 Budoff postulates that cyclic variations in estrogen, progesterone and prolactin hormones result in changing hormone levels; their interaction leads to increased levels of prostaglandins, which fall around menstruation.3 Epstein et al in a study of menstrual migraine and the reproductive hormones conclude that variation in hormonal activity may be a potentially relevant factor in all women with migraine, more striking in those with a clear history of menstrual relationship.4 Nattero found, in a study of 720 migraineous women, significant differences between those with menstrual migraine and those with only non-menstrual migraine.5 Differences between the 2 populations were found in regard to frequency, location, accompanying symptoms, duration and pattern. He believes such differences indicate that menstrual headache should be treated as a distinct clinical entity.