نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
To compete in a global economy, manufacturers are forced to move towards low volume production of innovative and customized products with high added value. Three-dimensional printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping enables and facilitates production of moderate to mass quantities of products that can be individually customized. The technology is truly innovative with endless product design possibilities and potential to enhance global supply chain capabilities. The technology improves efficiencies of the entire supply chain, from the cost of distribution to assembly and carry, all the way to the component itself. This article reviews evolution of new supply chain models, examines some of the potential benefits of AM in challenging traditional manufacturing constraints, explores its impact on the traditional and global supply chain and logistics, and investigates its transformative potential and its impact on various industry segments.
3D printing uses a computer aided (CAD) design to translate the design into a three-dimensional object. The design is then sliced into several two-dimensional plans, which instruct the 3D printer where to deposit the layers of material. The terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing have become interchangeable. The terminology additive manufacturing or AM refers to the technology, or additive process, of depositing successive thin layers of material upon each other, producing a final three dimensional product. Each layer is approximately 0.001 to 0.1 inches in thickness  . A wide variety of materials can be utilized; namely, plastics, resins, rubbers, ceramics, glass, concretes, and metals  .