Turkey, one of the twenty largest economies in the world is currently undergoing dynamic economic growth. Rich deposits of metal ores, i.e. iron, chromium, copper, zinc and lead ores, extraction of crude oil, bituminous coal and chemical raw materials affect the country’s economic development and affect the functioning of the natural environment. The largest cities of Turkey, i.e. Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Bursa, Adana, etc. are not only the country’s economic hallmark, but also a source of high emissions from technical and communication infrastructure. The impact of transport emissions or industrial pollution affects the share of green space in cities and the health of residents in large cities. Actions of municipal authorities may contribute to reducing adverse factors in the environment, which will improve the quality of life along with ensuring simultaneous economic development. The article presents the problems of the largest cities in Turkey in managing urban logistic processes and their impact on the natural environment, together with the opportunities of eliminating unfavorable ecological factors while simultaneously maintaining economic growth.
In general evaluation, megacities have increased the level of pollution and environmental degradation. Many factors affect the pollution in the city, e.g. geographical location, climate, meteorology, emissions from heating of buildings, industry, traffic and its intensity, waste management and the quality of green areas. The level of air pollution in metropolises depends on national technologies and the possibility of pollution control as well as the willingness and possibilities to improve air quality. The rapid urbanization of cities has increased the share of air pollution, especially in developing countries. Over 90% of the emission of harmful compounds into the air is attributed to motor vehicles. Increased population density also has a negative impact on the number of green areas. In order to improve the quality of life in cities, it is necessary to adopt new visions for the development of urban space and their effective management (Incecik, Im, 2012). Istanbul's natural environment is in a poor condition. Globalization processes are not conducive to improving the city's ecosystem, on the contrary, they have a negative impact on the environment. The city's economic development also has a detrimental effect on air quality, the amount of green areas and the development of living species. A new venture for the construction of a third airport will thoroughly destroy the flora and fauna around the city. Air pollution will deepen and the quality of life in the city will decrease. There will be a significant increase in the number of disease incidents and deaths, which will translate into an economic slowdown and lack of manpower. The Chamber of Geological Engineers in Istanbul emphasizes that the destruction of forests within the city limits will bring the collapse of the city's ecosystem. An important ecological area for the city, which is at the same time a forest corridor to the Black Sea, comprises 6672 ha of sea pine forests, stone pines, Turkish pines, black pines, oaks, hornbeams, ash trees, limes, alders and other trees. Destruction of this ecosystem will have irreversible consequences for the environment of the whole country (Northern Forests Defense, 2015). However, environmental resolutions adopted by the city council may soon bring improvement of environmental conditions, not taking into account investments in the new airport. Increased expenditure and investments on environmental protection and generation of new green areas may be reflected in the creation of the ecological and environmentally friendly city.