نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Efficient logistics system is an important factor for stable economic growth of the state. Rational use of transport and logistics capabilities of the country stimulates the rapid development of related industries and sectors of the economy. In a globalizing world economy and the expansion of integration processes with the introduction of the Eurasian Economic Union, Kazakhstan is implementing an ambitious strategic goal of building a competitive economy. In this context, a key role in achieving these goals must go to efficient transport and logistics system, which should provide not only a high and efficient transport connectivity in the country, but also the necessary level of integration of Kazakhstan into the global transport and logistics network. And in today’s Kazakhstan, the level of logistics costs in the manufacturing complex is one of the highest in the world, the share of logistics costs in the final cost of production is approximately 20-25%. In this case, the global average is 11%, in China – 14% in the EU – 11% in the US and Canada – 10%. At present, the lack of efficiency of the transport system of Kazakhstan is a brake on the development of the economy as a whole. In this regard, there is a question of logistics research in Kazakhstan and its impact on the country’s economic growth. This article discusses the problems and obstacles to the development of the logistics system of Kazakhstan and ways of their solutions, the analysis of the logistic capacity of the country.
To assess the development of logistics in different countries the World Bank experts suggested Logistics Performance Index – LPI. Since 2007, four surveys had been carried out during which the methods of analysis have undergone some changes (Connecting to compete. Trade logistics in the global economy, 2014). Method of determining the LPI is based on a synthesis of information received from international companies engaged in the order of transport and movement of goods, including urgent ones. In the normal course of business, companies have to choose the most advantageous scheme of delivery of goods. Questionnaires from more than 800 international companies are processed. In the questionnaire survey each participant with which his company works assesses 8 countries by 5-point scale on 6 positions: • сustoms; • infrastructure; • international shipments; • logistics quality and competence; • tracking and tracing; • timeliness (Connecting to compete. Trade logistics in the global economy, 2014). Strictly speaking, the method of the World Bank’s does not evaluate logistics performance as such (costeffectiveness) but the level of infrastructure development and the degree of perfection of functioning logistical chain. In the analysis of logistics performance Russia and Belarus are selected in comparison with Kazakhstan (Partners for the Common Economic Union). (Table 1 and Table 2) If we compare the LPI 2014 with LPI 2012, we can see a decrease of Kazakhstan’s LPI rank from 86 to 88, but the LPI score has not changed. Indicators fell by sections «Infrastructure», «International shipments», «Tracking and tracing», «Customs», «Logistics and quality competence». At the same time there is a significant improvement on the position «Timeliness» (Connecting to compete. Trade logistics in the global economy, 2014, Connecting to compete. Trade logistics in the global economy, 2012).