نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Sociometer theory asserts that self-esteem is calibrated to one's perceived relational value. Accordingly, positive feedback should boost self-esteem because it signals acceptance by others. Yet, the extent to which self-esteem is sensitive to positive feedback may depend on individuals' sense of purpose. In two studies (N = 342), we tested purpose in life as a source of self-directed and prosocial motivation and predicted that having greater purpose would lessen sensitivity to social media feedback. Study 1 revealed that the number of likes individuals received on their Facebook profile pictures was positively associated with self-esteem. Study 2 replicated these findings experimentally by manipulating the number of likes individuals received on self-photographs posted to a mock Facebook site. In both studies, links between likes and self-esteem were diminished for those with greater purpose. Implications for purpose as a moderator of the self-esteem contingencies of positive social feedback are discussed.
Participants were 300 adults (49% women) between the ages of 18 and 69 (Mage = 32.63, SD = 10.20) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Because past studies have relied on much smaller sample sizes to detect moderating effects of purpose in life on ratings of self-relevant attitudes and satisfaction (sample sizes ranging from 49 to 151; Heisel & Flett, 2004; Steger, Oishi, & Kesebir, 2011), we sought to utilize a much larger sample to test our predictions. Data collection did not depend on any analysis of results. Respondents were only included in analyses if they reported having (a) an active Facebook account, (b) at least 20 friends in their virtual network, and (c) received fewer than 200 likes on their average profile picture in order to ensure that the sample reflected the average Facebook user. Based on these criteria, 246 respondents were retained. All measures used in this study are reported below. 184.108.40.206. Purpose in life. Purpose in life was assessed using the six-item Life Engagement Test (Scheier et al., 2006). Participants indicated the extent to which they agreed with statements such as, “There is not enough purpose in my life” (reverse scored), “To me, the things I do are all worthwhile” and “I have lots of reasons for living”. Responses ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).