Cloud computing is one of the significant facilitators of the health information revolution in the healthcare business. The global exchange of records in the health sector through electronic media is facilitated by cloud computing. In healthcare, this technology increases safety and creates innovation. Communication with the health matrix throughout the world makes feasible by the application of this technology. Cloud computing has been utilised in health care for many years and has evolved in conjunction with developments in business. This technology establishes standard accessible hardware for diverse healthcare applications via a network connection. Cloud computing and processing ensure safe communication, and the cloud servers secure all essential data. Doctors can counsel their individuals on their health and broadcast their patient’s daily health regimes, typically keeping their minds and bodies healthy. Psychologists and psychiatrists can use videoconferencing that makes patients comfortable with their patients. This paper discusses cloud computing and its need for healthcare. Major key advantages, barriers, and challenges of Cloud computing for the healthcare industry are identified. Finally, it discusses the significant applications of cloud computing for healthcare. Today more and more healthcare suppliers are providing Internet of Things (IoT) enabled gadgets to patients, and patient data are instantly communicated to their doctors by linking such devices to the cloud system of hospitals. As a result, cloud computing, in conjunction with fast-expanding technologies such as Big Data analytics, artificial intelligence, and the internet of medical things, improves efficiencies and expands the number of ways to streamline healthcare delivery. It improves resource availability, improves interoperability, and reduces costs.
Cloud computing is the next turning point, despite all the concerns, in the digital transformation of the healthcare business. Hospitals and other non-IT-specific enterprises take full advantage of this technology. In healthcare, this technology is helpful for a digital medical component that captures data from hospitals, other institutions, and patient records and reports on the diagnosis. The global health cloud computing market will increase rapidly over the next few years with favourable signals from the healthcare industry (Liao and Qiu, 2016, Roy et al., 2018, Sultan, 2014). A comprehensive list of functions is supplied for various cloud computing providers’ healthcare industry-related demands and requirements. Thus, health practices quickly deactivate, extend, and contract new capabilities (Ahuja et al., 2012, Griebel et al., 2015).
The health organisation’s objective is to enhance clinical results and people’s quality of life. The flow of improvement in a person’s health improves the general population’s health, reducing the financial expenses of maintaining a healthcare system. Many healthcare organisations still have traditional IT systems or technologies that cannot interact (Doukas & Maglogiannis, 2012, Dang et al., 2019). This limits clinicians’ capacity to acquire information promptly and accurately, helping them make better educated clinical judgments. The extensive use of cloud-based patient care documentation facilitates sharing of information among doctors, the outcomes of interactions between other doctors and patients, and treatment. Cloud computing outlines how remote servers to store, save, manage, and process data over the internet, rather than constructing an on-site data centre, using servers, or hosting the information on a computer (Calabrese & Cannataro, 2015, Sobhy et al., 2012, Chauhan & Kumar, 2013).
A health service would need to spend considerably on the infrastructure and maintenance to handle all the internal operations connected to storage, data processing, transfer, and cooperation. Things have altered substantially with the introduction of cloud computing, even though much growth is already taking place in healthcare institutions. This has aided in the development of facilities and infrastructure and has also opened up new paths in medical research, making it multidisciplinary for the benefit of humanity. Cloud computing has found its way through technological breakthroughs to allow medicine in various ways. There are certain evident instances where cloud computing has aided inpatient treatment, such as offering medical facilities virtual consultation even in the most remote places (Darwish et al., 2019, Hanen et al., 2016, Mehraeen et al., 2017, Ma et al., 2015)
Cloud-based infrastructures have contributed to the discovery of various vaccines by clinical scientists and health professionals worldwide, supporting specialists to provide the necessary information to produce a potent antigen. Cloud-based services provide colossal support and strengthen the health infrastructure by enhancing the accessibility and interoperability of information. The cloud brings value to the organisation with various methods to save costs, simple data access, enhanced security, and efficiency. Efficiency and productivity improvements are typically far more than cloud and safety. Healthcare companies can improve productivity and deliver better services to their clients, which are essential because they can consider their business (Kumar & Nirmalkumar, 2019, Hu et al., 2012, Cimler et al., 2014). This paper discusses the significant potential of cloud computing for healthcare.
2. What is cloud computing?
In its most basic form, Cloud computing entails storing and accessing data and programs over the internet rather than on the computer’s hard drive. Customers who use cloud computing do not own the infrastructure; instead, they rent it from a third-party supplier. On-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity are essential properties of cloud computing and cloud services. Cloud computing’s popularity is growing because of its multiple advantages. One element that allows organisations to deliver cloud services is avoiding high software license expenses. They rely on the internet. Cloud resources are accessible across the network at any time and through a standard method that encourages the usage of various platforms (Cho et al., 2014, Fong & Chung, 2013, Rallapalli et al., 2016).
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS) are the three basic categories of cloud computing. IaaS is the foundation for cloud computing. It usually gives users access to networking capabilities, computers, and data storage. IaaS allows one to have the most flexibility and control over the IT resources. It is comparable to existing IT resources that many IT departments and developers are already familiar with. The second type, PaaS, eliminates the need to manage the underlying infrastructure, allowing one to focus on application deployment and management. This allows one to be more productive because one will not have to worry about resource procurement, capacity planning, software maintenance, patching, or any other undifferentiated heavy lifting that comes with running an application. The third type, SaaS, gives a fully functional product managed and maintained by the service provider. Most of the time, when people talk about SaaS, they are talking about end-user applications (such as web-based email). The service is well maintained, along the underlying infrastructure is managed (Stantchev et al., 2014, He et al., 2012, Lubamba & Bagula, 2017, Singh et al., 2021).
3. Need for cloud computing for healthcare
Much data is produced daily in the healthcare business. The time is necessary for providers and patients to make these data securely available remotely. Health cloud computing allows organisations to get rid of limits while providing better results for patients. Cloud computing reduces operational expenses and provides individualised treatment for healthcare providers. In addition, the adoption of cloud solutions contributes to efficient workflows and improves service. At the same time, patients obtain faster health industry replies. Cloud solutions provide access to healthcare information. It allows individuals better to monitor their health (Doukas et al., 2010, Elmogazy & Bamasak, 2013, Gao & Sunyaev, 2019, Masrom & Rahimli, 2014).
Doctors and health professionals deliver world-class solutions with cloud computing services. It is processed fast and quickly using userfriendly cloud tools to generate concisely, easy-to-refer information that enables analysts to evaluate and deliver guided therapies. The need to save time for both patients and healthcare professionals helps boost online health consultation and seamless support for remote health care (Haleem & Javaid, 2020, Skondras et al., 2018). Healthcare has worked on traditional systems for a long time but has recently seen several needs for digital transformation. Wearables and virtual medicine have enabled patients to receive personalised care at times necessary. The increase and the demand for interoperability across electronic health record technology platforms have given birth to a demand for cloud-based technology, which provides secure, fast, and cost-effective solutions for many applications (Lee et al., 2015, Muhammad et al., 2019).