بخشی از مقاله (انگلیسی)
A large part of the current microgrids (MGs) operate in grid-connected mode and act as slaves following the voltage and frequency dictated by the main grid. Therefore, these MGs are not expected to be operated in parallel as islands. Hence, according to the IEEE 1457-2018 standard, the power generation units in these grid-connected MGs (GCMGs) have to be disconnected in less than 2 s if islanding occurs. On the contrary, if the islanding operation (IO) does not occur, these MGs exchange power with the electrical grid. This paper explores the feasibility of a multi-functional algorithm (MA) for these GCMGs in an attempt to address three tasks simultaneously; (i) power sharing, (ii) voltage support and, (iii) islanding detection (ID). The MG object of study comprises an electronically interfaced photovoltaic (PV) unit supplemented by a battery energy storage system (BESS) equipped in combination with a bidirectional charger. The model of the GCMG has been implemented in MATLAB, where an extensive set of simulations has been performed. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of the proposed MA, which fulfils several functions all at once.
Conceptually, MGs are self-sufficient entities formed by an aggregation of generation units, energy storage systems and a set of controllable loads . These MGs can be either connected to the grid (i.e., the abovementioned GCMGs) or operating in stand-alone mode . Even though these GCMGs can be powered by different technologies (Wind, PV, mini-hydro, etc.), rooftop PV units are becoming very popular in residential and industrial applications due to their multiple benefits. Even though these GCMGs require the main grid, if both generation and storage devices are properly coordinated and sized, the amount of energy exchanged with the grid can be significantly reduced. Therefore, these GCMGs are becoming less grid-dependents in terms of exchanged energy.
In this regard, multi-functional algorithms are gaining momentum in MGs. For example, a fully distributed MA control has been proposed in , while references , ,  used MAs for optimal MG management. If the peak power is shaved and the energy supplied by the grid is curtailed, this will imply a reduction in the electricity cost , . Undoubtedly, this aspect is crucial for these MGs; for instance, see the techno-economic analysis carried out in .
Albeit these MGs offer several advantages for the users and the DNs (e.g., losses reduction and voltage support) , , some issues may occur due to their inherent intermittency. In particular, voltage regulation is among the most concerning issues for the distributor operators (DSOs). Although these PV-based distributed generations (DGs) are commonly operated at unity power factor, some grid codes require reactive power support by the voltage source converters (VSCs). Therefore, optimal Volt/VAR strategies have been investigated for such purposes, see . Presently, the electronically-interfaced grid-connected generation units which provide grid support are also known as grid-following VSCs, see .