بخشی از مقاله (انگلیسی)
Blockchain technology has been growing in importance and acceptability over the past few years. Yet, there is limited empirical research on the organizational and technology specific factors that play a critical role in driving its adoption in the supply chain. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework for blockchain adoption in the supply chain by identifying the enablers and empirically evaluating their interdependencies and impact on adoption. 20 enablers of blockchain adoption in the supply chain are identified using an extensive literature review and theoretical lenses from the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory and the business technology adoption model developed by Iacovou, Benbassat and Dexter (1995). In the confirmatory phase, we employ the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method to extract logic from data collected from 37 French experts about the impact of the enablers and their interdependencies. Our paper extends the multi-theoretic empirical studies to blockchain technology and identifies the enablers of blockchain adoption from technological, organizational, supply chain and external environment perspectives. Regarding the importance of the categories of enablers, we find that the relative advantage of the technology and the external pressure are the most prominent categories of enablers that impact blockchain adoption in the supply chain. Our analysis also shows the important causal role on adoption of the potential of blockchain to reduce transaction cost, the consumer interest in traceability data and the establishment of a regulatory framework for blockchain usage.
Blockchain technology has recently gained importance as a promising technology in the area of supply chain management. For instance, Maersk used an IBM blockchain solution to efficiently track its containers around the world (Popper and Lohr, 2017). Catina Volpone vineyard (www.cantinavolpone.it) in Puglia, Italy and Ernst and Young's EZ Lab (www.ezlab.it) developed a blockchain-based solution that enables full transparency through the wine supply chain and allows customers to access information about the harvesting, pressing, and bottling dates and conditions, among many other details for each bottle or case of wine (Montecchi et al., 2019). Similarly, Walmart and IBM have successfully implemented a blockchain-based solution for tracking pork products in China with a farm-to-table approach, providing transparency and full information about the supply chain stages every individual product went through (Yiannas, 2017). Blockchain solutions providers such as Everledger (everledger.io), Provenance (provenance.org), Bext360 (bext360.com) conducted pilot projects and offered typical use cases that demonstrate blockchain potential in verifying and certifying the origin, authenticity and integrity of products such as diamond, wine buttles, luxury fashion, coffee beans, and medicines (Kshetri, 2018; Montecchi et al., 2019; Lacity, 2018; Tönnissen and Teuteberg, 2020). Enabling traceability, enhancing transparency and establishing product provenance as shown in the above examples are not the only benefits of using blockchain technology. Indeed, blockchain is a distributed ledger (database) through which supply chain partners can interact and create, verify, validate, and securely store various kinds of records such as product information, certificates, localization data, transaction records, data acquired from sensors and other connected devices (Crosby et al., 2016; Iansiti and Lakhani, 2017). Thus, in addition to providing traceability and making the whole history of products digitally available, blockchain promises to improve supply chain coordination and process efficiency (Kshetri, 2018; Babich and Hilary, 2020; Queiroz et al., 2020; Wamba et al., 2020) and to achieve supply chain sustainability goals (Casey and Wong, 2017; Kouhizadeh and Sarkis, 2018; Kshetri, 2018; Babich and Hilary, 2020).