تداوم مشکلات حقوقی و اخلاقی شرکتهای بازاریابی چند سطحی
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تداوم مشکلات حقوقی و اخلاقی شرکتهای بازاریابی چند سطحی

عنوان فارسی مقاله: نقش شبکه توزیع کننده در تداوم مشکلات حقوقی و اخلاقی شرکتهای بازاریابی چند سطحی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: The Role of the Distributor Network in the Persistence of Legal and Ethical Problems of Multi-level Marketing Companies
مجله/کنفرانس: مجله اخلاق در تجارت - Journal Of Business Ethics
رشته های تحصیلی مرتبط: مدیریت
گرایش های تحصیلی مرتبط: بازاریابی، مدیریت کسب و کار، مدیریت بازاریابی
کلمات کلیدی فارسی: اخلاق شرکتی، رفتار غیرقانونی، بازاریابی چند سطحی، رفتار غیر اخلاقی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی: Corporate ethics، Illegal behavior، Multi-level marketing، Unethical behavior
نوع نگارش مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)
نمایه: Scopus - Master journals - JCR
شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3556-9
دانشگاه: Institute for Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, PO Box 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen, The Netherlands
ناشر: اسپرینگر - Springer
نوع ارائه مقاله: ژورنال
نوع مقاله: ISI
سال انتشار مقاله: 2019
ایمپکت فاکتور: 4.330 در سال 2018
شاخص H_index: 147 در سال 2019
شاخص SJR: 1/860 در سال 2018
شناسه ISSN: 0167-4544
شاخص Quartile (چارک): Q1 در سال 2018
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی: pdf
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 23
وضعیت ترجمه: ترجمه نشده است
قیمت مقاله انگلیسی: رایگان
آیا این مقاله بیس است: خیر
آیا این مقاله مدل مفهومی دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله پرسشنامه دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله متغیر دارد: ندارد
کد محصول: E12624
رفرنس: دارای رفرنس در داخل متن و انتهای مقاله
فهرست انگلیسی مطالب

Abstract


Introduction


The Legal and Ethical Problems of MLMs and Existing Measures to Deal with them


Illegal Pyramid Schemes


Misrepresenting the Business Opportunity


Harming Customers


(Mis-)using Trust in Private Social Relations


Total Institutions: Colonizing Every Aspect of Distributors’ Lives


Understanding how MLMs Operate: A ‘Prevailing’ and an ‘Extended’ Model


The ‘Prevailing Model’ of MLMs


An Extended Model of MLMs


Why Legal and Ethical Problems Persist, Despite Exiting Countermeasures


Illegal Pyramid Schemes


Misrepresenting the Business Opportunity


Harming Customers


(Mis-)using Trust in Private Social Relations


Total Institutions: Colonizing Every Aspect of Members’ Lives


Summary of why Legal and Ethical Problems Persist, Despite Existing Countermeasures


Reflecting on Additional Countermeasures


Conclusion


References

نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله

Abstract


Multi-level marketing companies (MLMs) such as Amway, Herbalife, or Tupperware differ from most other companies. They market their products and services by means of self-employed distributors who typically work from home, sell products to end consumers, and recruit, motivate, and educate new distributors to do the same. Although the industry’s growth seems to illustrate the attractiveness of MLMs, the industry has been facing several legal and ethical problems. In this paper, we focus on these problems and argue that an extended MLM model may help us to understand why such problems continue to occur, despite the countermeasures that have been implemented. By explicating how problems relate to a specific but often overlooked characteristic of MLMs, i.e., the socalled distributor network, we provide an extended understanding of (a) MLMs’ mode of operation, (b) the sources of their legal and ethical problems, and (c) the reason that currently implemented and suggested countermeasures may not suffice. Moreover, based on our extended understanding of MLMs and their problems, we propose additional countermeasures.


Introduction


Multi-level marketing companies (MLMs) such as Avon, Amway, Herbalife, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Tupperware, and Vemma represent a growing industry worldwide (WFDSA 2016). In 2015, more than 103.3 million people around the world worked for MLMs, creating a retail turnover of approximately 183.7 bn US Dollars (for worldwide as well as regional numbers see WFDSA 2016). Typically, selfemployed, unsalaried, and independent MLM distributors are entitled to earn money in two ways (Brodie et al. 2004). First, by selling company products ‘directly’ to consumers, i.e., on a ‘face-to-face [basis] … away from a fixed retail location’ (Peterson and Wotruba 1996, p. 2). Typical products and services sold to non-members (‘ultimate consumers’) are, for example, cosmetics, energy supply, food storage products, insurances, jewelry, loans, nutritional supplements, phone contracts, and wine (DSN 2012). Making money this way is characteristic for so-called ‘direct selling organizations’—to which MLMs belong. A second way for MLM distributors to earn money is by recruiting, training, and motivating new distributors, and building a so-called ‘downline’ of members (Brodie et al. 2002). When downline members buy products from the company or recruit new members to do the same, the recruiters (the ‘upline’) earn override commissions on the product purchases of their downline. This results in a ‘hierarchy of recruiters/sellers’ which is distinctive of MLMs. Almost all direct selling organizations employ this ‘multi-level marketing’ structure (DSN 2012), which means that almost all direct selling organizations are also MLMs.

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