نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
This paper presents the benefits of the solar photovoltaic technology and the operation challenges corresponding to the large-scale integration of this technology in the distribution networks. A voltage control algorithm is proposed to mitigate the adverse effects of PV generation on the voltage profile of the distribution network. An operation planning framework is proposed that captures the heterogeneous objectives of the generation and demand entities and features limited information sharing among these entities.
The Solar photovoltaic (PV) generation is a modular electricity generation asset that converts solar energy into electricity. Solar PV units can be manufactured for various applications in different capacities. As the price of solar PV panels decreases with the advancement in technology and the economies of scale, the installed capacity of PV is increased in the transmission and distribution networks. The global PV generation capacity reached 398 GW in 2017 to produce over 460 TWh electricity and to hold about 2% of the global electricity generation (IEA, 2018). In the U.S., 1.7 GW of solar PV capacity is installed in the third quarter of 2018 to increase the installed capacity to 60 GW. The total installed capacity of PV generation is expected to be doubled over the next five years; and by 2023, it is estimated that over 14 GW of PV generation capacity will be installed annually (SEIA, 2018). Several challenges in the energy sector were addressed by improving the penetration level of PV generation technology. The greenhouse gas emission due to burning the fossil fuels, the high cost of energy, lack of electricity supply in remote and underdeveloped regions as well as the high transmission and distribution network losses in urban and developed regions are among the challenges that could be addressed by PV generation in the modern global electricity industry. Here, we briefly present these challenges and evaluate the impact of PV generation technology to address them. Greenhouse gas emission is the main driver of climate change. A considerable portion of the emission worldwide is produced in China as it holds the largest carbon footprint in the world since 2004. China is accountable for 27.6% of global carbon dioxide production in 2017 (CSIS, 2018) and in order to reduce the carbon footprint, the government is heavily invested in renewable energy resources. Since 2015, China has had the largest installed capacity and power generation of PV and by 2017, 130 GW of solar PV generation is installed with the total capacity projected to be 400 GW by 2030. This effort is further pushed by the National Development & Reform Commission agency in China to increase in the share of renewable energy resources from 20% to 35% by 2030 (Lowder, 2018).