نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
During the last decade, Eye-Tracking technology has been popular amongst practitioners and researchers from various disciplines. In spite of widespread applications of Eye-Tracking technology`, considerably less attention has been paid to the potential of this technology in manufacturing system. An holonic manufacturing system is a manufacturing system with high agility, which is an important characteristic for future manufacturing systems. This paper provides a theoretical overview and guidance for the implementation of Eye-Tracking technology in the holonic manufacturing system. The description of the EyeTracking technology and a brief discussion of potential application and the limitations is provided. This study discusses the implementation of Eye-Tracking technology as an holon.
The control of the manufacturing systems is a difficult task due to their complexity and large-scale size. In order to meet this challenges one of the manufacturing systems was highlighted by Arthur Koestler . It explains how complex systems derive from the union of stable and autonomous sub-systems, which are able to survive turbulences and, at the same time, cooperate to shape a more complex system. According to Koestler in order to understand complex systems, it is not enough to study atoms, molecules, cells, individuals or systems as independent entities, but it is essential to consider such unities as concurrently parts of a larger whole; in other words, we have to consider the holon. The term holon is a blend of the ancient Greek “ὅλος” with the meaning of “whole” and the suffix “ὄν” meaning entity or part . Holons are simultaneously part and whole. A holon can be part of another holon. Holons act as intelligent, autonomous and cooperative entities which work together inside temporary hierarchies called holarchies. A holarchy is a hierarchy of self-regulating holons functioning, (a) as autonomous (b) as dependent parts (c) in coordination with their local environment . The application of holonic concepts to manufacturing was initially motivated by the inability of existing manufacturing systems (i) to deal with the evolution of products within an existing production facility and (ii) to maintain satisfactory performance levels outside normal operating conditions. The holonic manufacturing system concept combines the best features of hierarchical and heterarchical organization. It preserves the stability of hierarchy while providing the dynamic flexibility of heterarchy . In an holonic manufacturing system, each holon’s activities are determined through the cooperation with other holons, as opposed to being determined by a centralized mechanism. An holonic manufacturing system could therefore enjoy high agility, which is an important characteristic for future manufacturing systems.