نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Increasing popularity of virtual reality (VR) gaming is causing increased concern, as prolonged use induces visual adaptation effects which disturbs normal vision. Effects of VR gaming on accommodation and convergence of young adults by measuring accommodative response and phoria before and after experiencing virtual reality were measured. An increase in accommodative response and a decrease in convergence was observed after immersion in VR games. It was found that visual symptoms were apparent among the subjects post VR exposure.
Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated environment where the visual content and alternatively different senses are entirely computer-generated and the participant's performance alters the appearance of the environmental status. The visual stimulus and other sensory channels such as touch, smell, sound, and taste are presented by a combination of virtual and augmented reality systems (Rebenitsch and Owen, 2016). Virtual reality has been rapidly developmental in the recent years, particularly the VR headsets, which are used by attaching a smartphone that contain the VR game and mounting it on the head, thus providing users with a virtually immersive experience (Desai et al., 2014). The current study uses a VR game as the stimulus as it is perceived to be more appealing to the user, enhancing maximum immersion; furthermore players show a higher anxiety level which would enhance their post VR-gaming response (Pallavicini et al., 2018). VR gaming blocks out the external environment whilst promoting sensory immersion due to the enlarged field of view (FOV) of the VR headset, providing users with a greater immersion experience (Martel and Muldner, 2017). The accommodation and vergence systems are reflexively linked, interacting with each other through accommodative vergence and vergence accommodation; where accommodation is stimulated by retinal blur whereas vergence is stimulated by depth (Hung, 2001). Accommodation and convergence are simultaneously occurring ocular systems that enable normal binocular vision. A disruption in one system could affect the other (Shiomi et al., 2013). The demand exerted on the accommodation and vergence systems by VR results to a reduction in visual performance due to the ocular discomfort experienced (Barnes, 2016). Moreover, discomfort in stereoscopic viewing is caused by the need of quick adaptation from the vergence system, despite the conflicting accommodation system (Hoffman et al., 2008; Lambooij et al., 2009). Studies have found a significant effect of VR on accommodation and convergence (Mon-Williams et al., 1993; Kooi and Toet, 2004; Rebenitsch and Owen, 2016), caused by a disruption in how these two systems work together. Shiomi and his colleagues found the incidence of mismatch between accommodation and convergence which resulted to complaints of visual fatigue after users were immersed in the VR world for a period of time (Shiomi et al., 2013). This paper presents investigations on how the accommodative and convergence systems are affected after using the VR headset for a period of time.