نوآوری و کوچک شدن فضای سیاسی و تعهد سیاسی
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نوآوری و کوچک شدن فضای سیاسی و تعهد سیاسی

عنوان فارسی مقاله: گزارش تانزانیا از تغییر در تغذیه: تعهد سیاسی، نوآوری و کوچک شدن فضای سیاسی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Tanzania’s story of change in nutrition: Political commitment, innovation and shrinking political space
مجله/کنفرانس: امنیت جهانی غذا - Global Food Security
رشته های تحصیلی مرتبط: علوم اجتماعی
گرایش های تحصیلی مرتبط: پژوهشگری اجتماعی، جامعه شناسی
کلمات کلیدی فارسی: تانزانیا، تغذیه، تعهد سیاسی، سیاست، محیط توانمند
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی: Tanzania، Nutrition، Political commitment، Policy، Enabling environment
نوع نگارش مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)
نمایه: Scopus - Master Journals List - JCR
شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2020.100350
دانشگاه: Institute of Development Studies, at the University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RE, United Kingdom
ناشر: الزویر - Elsevier
نوع ارائه مقاله: ژورنال
نوع مقاله: ISI
سال انتشار مقاله: 2020
ایمپکت فاکتور: 5/563 در سال 2019
شاخص H_index: 31 در سال 2020
شاخص SJR: 1/927 در سال 2019
شناسه ISSN: 2211-9124
شاخص Quartile (چارک): Q1 در سال 2019
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی: PDF
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 9
وضعیت ترجمه: ترجمه نشده است
قیمت مقاله انگلیسی: رایگان
آیا این مقاله بیس است: خیر
آیا این مقاله مدل مفهومی دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله پرسشنامه دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله متغیر دارد: ندارد
کد محصول: e14369
رفرنس: دارای رفرنس در داخل متن و انتهای مقاله
فهرست انگلیسی مطالب

Abstract


1- Introduction


2- Data and methods


3- Results


4- Discussion and conclusions


References

نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله

Abstract


In the past 15 years, Tanzania has made considerable progress in the fight against child undernutrition. This paper analyses in what respects an enabling environment for nutrition action in Tanzania has emerged. It critically investigates the nature of government political commitment and assesses the breadth and depth of a range of public policies, initiatives and actions within and across nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive sectors, and at the national, sub-national and community levels. It finds that Tanzania has undertaken substantial policy innovation and institutional development, carrying significant promise to accelerate nutrition improvements, provided they are accompanied by stronger domestic investments, and greater political space enabling communities to hold the government to account for its performance combating malnutrition.


Introduction


During the past 15 years, Tanzania has made considerable progress in the fight against child undernutrition. Stunting levels for children under five years of age have seen gradual declines, from nationwide averages of 48 per cent in 1999, to 44 per cent in 2005, and to 34 per cent in 2015 (Government of Tanzania, 2016). A recent re-analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey data suggests that official figures are underreporting the achievements, finding stunting levels to have declined to 30 per cent in 2015 (Headey et al., 2019). This downward trend is replicated among neighbouring countries' under-five stunting rates, with Malawi, Kenya and Uganda exhibiting similar reductions. For example, between 2003 and 2014, Kenya's under-five stunting rate declined from 36 per cent to 26 per cent (Government of Kenya, 2015). Faster declines over a similar period were noted in South East Asia, where Nepal experienced a reduction in stunting level of 21 per cent between 2001 and 2016 (Government of Nepal et al., 2017) and Cambodia a decline of 18 per cent over a 14 year period (Government of Cambodia et al., 2015). These figures have contributed to the overall global reduction in stunting, with levels falling by more than 10 per cent, from 33 per cent in 2000 to 22 per cent in 2017 (UNICEF et al., 2018). Several studies have sought to explain the reduction of stunting in Tanzania by exploring the drivers of improved nutritional status, with notable attention given to the positive role of better access to general health interventions, wealth gains and strengthened education of mothers (Masanja et al., 2008; Semali et al., 2015). Using a decomposition analysis to quantify the empirical drivers of positive change in underfives’ height-for-age, Headey et al. (2019) find dramatic increases in infants’ birth size to be the most significant factor, attributed to, in order of significance, improved maternal health monitoring, malaria prevention, HIV infection testing and improved water and sanitation facilities. However, overall, relatively little has been reported on the role of the enabling environment for nutrition action in Tanzania. This paper hence seeks to investigate the ways in which changes in the enabling environment may have underpinned the contributions of determinant factors towards declining stunting rates. Gillespie et al. (2013, p. 553) define enabling environments as the ‘political and policy processes that build and sustain momentum for the effective implementation of actions that reduce undernutrition’. Drawing upon this definition, we examine the role that the Government of Tanzania has played. The study thus adds to a portfolio of country case studies documenting the mechanisms by which nutrition has improved over the past 15 years in several countries as part of the Stories of Change in Nutrition project (Gillespie and Van den Bold, 2017; Harris et al., 2017; Kampman et al., 2017; Nisbett et al., 2017).

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