In the age of a knowledge-based economy and following extensive socio-economic changes, the success of organizations is not limited to gaining financial and material resources. Instead, it depends on the acquisition of intangible assets that can be used to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. In the new strategic environment, organizations will thrive when they see themselves as a learning organization whose goal is to improve intellectual capital continually; an organization that cannot increase its intellectual capital cannot survive. The term intellectual capital is used in the overlap of all assets, intangible resources and non-physical resources of an organization, including processes, innovation capacity and implicit and explicit knowledge of its members and partner network. However, despite the growing importance of intellectual capital and cloud computing as vital resources for organizations' competitive advantage, there is a limited understanding of them. Simultaneously, the management of intellectual capital enables organizational managers to create, nurture, control and preserves a strong competitive advantage source, the advantage that competitors will not easily capture. So, the main objective of the present investigation is to check out the factors affecting the adoption of intellectual capital management systems based on cloud computing in hospitals.
In the last two decades, we have moved toward economics, where investment in Information Technology (IT), human resources, development, research and advertising is essential to maintain competitive advantage and certify the sustainability of organizations. Therefore, it can be stated that the economic value is the creation and management of intangible assets, which are referred to as intellectual capital. On the other hand, cloud computing is presented as a new paradigm for hosting and providing services through the Internet. Cloud computing can lead to too many benefits to organizations, including cost reduction, flexibility and improved performance. The present article examines how optimal intellectual capital management can be achieved using cloud computing. So, seven hypotheses were developed through the dimensions of technology, environment, organization and innovation. In this study, the path analysis was performed using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Partial Least Squares (PLS). By reviewing the literature related to the model of technology, organization, environment and innovation dissemination theory, four main criteria, and 15 sub-criteria were identified based on the opinions of specialists, professors and IT experts based on AHP and PLS methods.
The results of this investigation confirmed all the hypotheses. The results illustrated that environmental and technological factors should be regarded more when adopting intellectual capital management systems based on cloud computing. The results also indicated that intellectual capital highly influences improving performance. Furthermore, cloud apps, like other disruptive technology, deliver superior benefits while still presenting a slew of realistic challenges that must be tackled. In order to draw a growing customer base to this business model, software vendors should resolve these concerns. The literature revealed that the computing industry is making tremendous strides around the world. Nevertheless, in order to achieve a faster and softer adoption, newer and more advanced techniques are still required.
The research outcomes can significantly impact a wide range of organizations, such as health-related organizations. However, there are some limitations; for example, the sample is limited to one country. Therefore, future studies can measure the data of this study in different samples in different countries. Future researchers can also boost the model's predictive capability to adopt cloud computing in other organizations by adding environmental, organizational, innovation and other technical factors.
Managers will use these emerging innovations to minimize costs and maximize profits in the intellectual capital management competition. An effective cloud computing based on an electronic human resource management system can significantly increase system performance in industries. The investigators expect that the results will direct clinicians and scholars into a more advanced and developed age of cloud-based apps.
Investigations on the impact of cloud computing on intellectual capital management are rare. Accordingly, this investigation provided a new experience in terms of intellectual capital in the field of cloud computing. This study filled the scientific research gap to understand the factors affecting intellectual capital management systems based on cloud computing. This study provides a better insight into the power of organizational and environmental structure to adopt this technology in hospitals.
About 200 years ago, in the age of agriculture and pre-industry, the two factors of work and land played an essential role in human life. From the beginning of theindustrial age until the end of the twentieth century, the two factors of labor and capital were recognized as the main production factors. But currently, information and knowledge have found their role in the global economy and are among the important factors of production and value creation along with labor and capital (Gowdy, 2020). What has attracted the most attention is intellectual capital. In a knowledge-based business setting, novel intangible organizational assets like innovation, human resource knowledge, competencies, organizational culture, customer service, organizational system, structure, etc., are needed (Soewarno and Tjahjadi, 2020). The term intellectual capital is used in the overlap of all assets, intangible resources and non-physical resources of an organization, including processes, innovation capacity and implicit and explicit knowledge of its members and partner network (Kirwa, 2020). To better understand intellectual capital, the organization’s assets can be divided into two main categories: 1. Tangible assets, 2. Intangible assets (Marr, 2004). In other words, the ownership of intellectual capital equips organizations with special capabilities (Bontis et al., 2007; Schiuma et al., 2008). The management of this strategic capital has become vital for the competitiveness of organizations (Polo and Vazquez, 2008). Intellectual capital management will also allow the organization to identify, maintain and rebuild its abilities and competencies in order to utilize them over time (Sudarsanam et al., 2006).
Conclusion and limitations
Cloud computing is a computing and service model that has been improved quickly in recent years. Its emergence as an information system model coincides with the need for healthcare for continuous and regular innovation to reduce effective and efficient costs while providing high-quality services. Due to cloud computing’s effect on the management and health system, this study tried to study the factors affecting adopting this technology in some hospitals. By implementing this system, the disease can be reduced in the country. The diagnosis of the disease among doctors can be made easier, and the patient’s health status can be monitored. Using this system, some suggestions can be made to patients and increase their health. In this study, the impact of four important variables (organizational technology of environment and innovation on cloud computing adoption in intellectual capital management systems) and the impact of technology on the environment, the impact of the organization on innovation and the impact of the adoption of cloud on intellectual capital management systems have been investigated to improve hospital performance in some hospitals.