بخشی از مقاله (انگلیسی)
City buses are one of the primary modes of public transport in most of the Indian cities. But because of the dissatisfaction regarding the bus service, the number of passengers in the buses are reducing. Therefore, quality of the city bus service is estimated based on users’ perception of present service quality and perception of expected service quality. A questionnaire survey was carried out to collect the users’ perception data. Data was analysed using factor analysis, path analysis and regression analysis to estimate the factor effecting users’ perception. It is found that a gap in users’ perception of present and expected service quality leads to dissatisfaction. Six performance indicators namely safety, vehicle condition & hygiene, comfort, reliability & convenience, information availability and reasonable travel expenses are found to effect user’s perception of service quality. It is found that the users are having high dissatisfaction levels in terms of safety, comfort, vehicle condition & hygiene and reliability & convenience and information availability of the bus service. The categorical analysis of the data show that with increasing income and age, the users are more concerned with the safety, comfort and vehicle condition & hygiene than the travel expense. Female users are found to be more concerned with the safety and vehicle condition & hygiene of the service than the male users. Very few studies emphasised on perception of expected service quality along with the perception of present service quality. But in this study both the expectation and perception of the users are considered. Moreover, the categorical analysis of the data will be helpful in understanding priorities of different factors so that improvement can be done based on the priorities of the users.
Travel demand in urban areas is increasing in emerging countries such as India as a result of rapid urbanization. For the last few decades, the number of motorized vehicles in India has been steadily growing (MORTH, New Delhi, India, 2004) and cities alone have the highest density of motorized vehicles (Singh, 2005; Sharma et al., 2011). In Indian cities, it is found that, the proportion of two wheelers, mostly motorized, are maximum with 73 % of the total vehicular population. Three wheelers and passenger cars with proportions of 15 % and 10 % respectively are also effecting the city traffic considerably (Sharma et al., 2011). The commercial vehicle market share is estimated to be less than 5 % (Sharma et al., 2011). The number of passenger cars and two wheelers in the country is quickly growing as the country’s affluence rises and its desire for mobility grows (Deb and Ali Ahmed, 2018). This has caused a reduced use of the public transport services within the cities. It is predicted that the mode share of the public transport will be further reduced in near future (MoUD, , 2008). For small and medium sized Indian cities, non-motorized modes of transport play a significant role. But the mode share of the non-motorized mode is predicted to be decreased from 38 % in 2007 to 25 % in 2031 (MoUD, , 2008).
In this study, overall service quality of the city bus service is estimated using users’ perception of the present service quality and perception of the expected service quality which can also be termed as subjective measure of the service quality. The conclusions for the current study can be summarized as below:
• Subjective analysis has been estimated based on the performance of six factors - safety, vehicle condition and hygiene, comfort, reliability & convenience, information availability and travel expenses. The dissatisfaction index values are found to be 0.47, 0.43, 0.46, 0.45, 0.48 and 0.27 respectively. The dissatisfaction index for travel expenses was found to be lower than the other factors. It indicates that users are less dissatisfied with travel expenses than the other factors.