A significant transformation occurs globally as transportation switches from fossil fuel-powered to zero and ultra-low tailpipe emissions vehicles. The transition to the electric vehicle requires an infrastructure of charging stations (CSs) with information technology, ingenious, distributed energy generation units, and favorable government policies. This paper discusses the key factors when planning electric vehicle charging infrastructure. This paper provides information about planning and technological developments that can be used to improve the design and implementation of charging station infrastructure. A comprehensive review of the current electric vehicle scenario, the impact of EVs on grid integration, and Electric Vehicle optimal allocation provisioning are presented. In particular, this paper analyzes research and developments related to charging station infrastructure, challenges, and efforts to standardize the infrastructure to enhance future research work. In addition, the optimal placement of rapid charging stations is based on economic benefits and grid impacts. It also describes the challenges of adoption. On the other hand, future trends in the field, such as energy procurement from renewable sources and cars’ benefits to grid technology, are also presented and discussed.
The escalation in need for conventional energy sources has caused multiple outcomes that negatively affect the environment. Resources are depleted, and CO2 is released in high amounts, causing the greenhouse effect and undesirable global warming (Wang and Cheng, 2020). As a result of the Paris Agreement, CO2 emissions were reduced, and the planet’s temperature was controlled (Saerbeck et al., 2020). Clean energy resources and related technologies have been developed to mitigate these problems. Although technological advancements have significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, about one-quarter of these emissions come from the sector (Napoli et al., 2019). According to Outlook (2010), the growing population and freight movements will contribute to a 77% increase in transportation by 2055. Due to the above reasons, research and adoption of electric vehicles (EV) deserve exorbitant attention. By emitting very low or no tailpipe emissions and making very little noise, electric vehicles significantly reduce traffic congestion and contribute to a healthier living environment (Sanchez-Sutil et al., 2015, Abid et al., 2022, Huang et al., 2022, Chakir et al., 2022, Lan et al., 2022, Soares et al., 2022, Guo and Zhao, 2015). As a result of this transition to zero-emission vehicles, the automotive industry is switching to zero-emission vehicles (Bräunl et al., 2020, Domínguez-Navarro et al., 2019). Approximately 1.5 million new battery electric vehicles (BEV) have been added to the global fleet of BEVs (Martins et al., 2021) in 2019, with approximately 4.8 million BEVs in use globally.
The popularity of electric vehicles is expected to grow significantly in the next decade due to technological progress, charging infrastructure, and grid integration. Furthermore, further technical improvements such as intelligent charging infrastructure, reliable communication systems, and coordinated charging systems are essential for EVs with distributed generators to achieve the maximum benefits. A future grid technology based on the Energy Internet can enable the electrical grid to become fully automated with advanced energy management systems. A discussion of EV charging and grid integration infrastructure is presented in this paper. EVs and their charging infrastructure must have unified norms and standards worldwide to gain popularity in the market. Future researchers will be given a clear picture of the specification requirements for EV charging and grid integration based on our discussion of the most prominent standards. In addition, different aspects of the existing charging and grid integration infrastructure are examined rigorously in terms of their advantages and disadvantages, including power, communication, control, and coordination. Besides suggestions for future research, this paper also includes perspectives on overcoming current challenges. It is evident from the discussion of the prospects of EVs that a review of this area is necessary. With this review, researchers and engineers will clearly understand the current state of EV charging and grid integration research.