بخشی از مقاله (انگلیسی)
Following an embedded sequential explanatory mixed-method research design in which quantitative and qualitative data were merged, this paper examines teachers' experiences of stress and job satisfaction and their relation to the DI practice. The quantitative study uses data from the National Educational Panel Study in Germany (N = 209 teachers), while the qualitative study analyses interview responses of 24 secondary school teachers. Findings reveal that teachers experience positive effects from implementing DI, but also perceive the practice as slightly stressful. Additionally, the paper discusses teachers’ DI training needs and the implications of the results, and calls for further research.
In their classroom, teachers around the world are confronted with a highly diverse student population that differs not only in performance and academic readiness, but also in their learning preferences, cultural backgrounds, language competence, learning styles, and motivation, as well as social, methodological, and self-regulatory competencies (Hardy et al., 2019; Jokinen et al., 2012). In order to maximize each student's learning potential, policymakers, and researchers urge teachers to embrace student diversity and adapt their instruction to the diverse learning needs of the students in their classrooms (e.g., Unesco, 2017).
One pedagogical approach that acknowledges the differences among learners and aims to respond effectively to students' varying learning needs is “differentiated instruction” (DI). DI is an approach by which teachers aim to provide optimal learning for all by carefully aligning learning tasks and activities with students’ learning needs (Roy et al., 2013; Tomlinson, 2014, 2017). Research has documented the positive effects of DI across the educational settings in which it has been implemented, reporting positive effects of DI on student achievement as well as learning interest and self-confidence (Eysink et al., 2017; Johnsen, 2003; Mc Quarrie & Mc Rae, 2010).
Previous studies on DI have mostly focused on the positive effects of DI towards students. On the other hand, effects on teachers have been somewhat ignored. To summarise, the findings from this study confirmed that teacher practice of DI is a “two-sided coin” when it comes to focusing on the effects on teachers. There are, without doubt, positive effects on teachers' job satisfaction which arise from perceptions of achievement, for instance. However, there are negative effects resulting from teachers' implementation of DI that mainly originate from lack of time, support and workload associated with DI produces. Therefore, future research would need to gain more insights into teachers' working environments (e.g. resources) and other requirements (e.g. teacher training) to find out what is needed for high-quality implementation of DI without negative effects on teachers’ well-being (e.g. teachers stress level and job satisfaction). Improving conditions to more easily implement DI would make the “positive side” of DI more visible. If teachers are able to experience more positive feelings and attitudes towards DI, the implementation rate would probably increase.