فیزیولوژی ورزشی و دیدگاه تغذیه ای مربی فوتبال
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فیزیولوژی ورزشی و دیدگاه تغذیه ای مربی فوتبال

عنوان فارسی مقاله: فیزیولوژی ورزشی و دیدگاه تغذیه ای مربی فوتبال
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Exercise physiology and nutritional perspectives of elite soccer refereeing
مجله/کنفرانس: مجله اسکاندیناوی پزشکی و علوم ورزشی – Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
رشته های تحصیلی مرتبط: تربیت بدنی
گرایش های تحصیلی مرتبط: فیزیولوژی ورزشی، فیزیولوژی فعالیت بدنی و تندرستی
نوع نگارش مقاله: مقاله مروری (Review Article)
نمایه: Scopus - Master Journal List - JCR - MedLine
شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12989
دانشگاه: Department of Sports Sciences – University of Innsbruck – Austria
ناشر: وایلی - Wiley
نوع ارائه مقاله: ژورنال
نوع مقاله: ISI
سال انتشار مقاله: 2017
ایمپکت فاکتور: 3.329 در سال 2017
شاخص H_index: 93 در سال 2019
شاخص SJR: 1.541 در سال 2017
شناسه ISSN: 1600-0838
شاخص Quartile (چارک): Q1 در سال 2017
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی: PDF
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 31
وضعیت ترجمه: ترجمه نشده است
قیمت مقاله انگلیسی: رایگان
آیا این مقاله بیس است: خیر
کد محصول: E7392
فهرست انگلیسی مطالب

Abstract


1- Introduction


2- Age and anthropometric profile of elite soccer referees


3- Performance profile of soccer referees


4- Training and Testing


5- Elite soccer referees vs. top-class soccer players


6- Nutritional requirements of elite match officials


7- Hydration and body fluid balance


8- Supplements and ergogenic aids


9- Nutritional recommendations for high-class soccer referees


10- Conclusion


Perspectives


References

نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله

Abstract


Referees are an integral part of soccer and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity and training load. Thus, referees’ caloric needs and recommended daily carbohydrate intake may generally be lower compared to active soccer players, with higher intakes limited to periods of increased training load and match days or for referees engaged in physical demanding occupations. With respect to fluid intake, pre-match and in-match hydration strategies generally valid in sports are recommended also for referees to avoid cognitive and physical performance loss, especially when officiating in extreme climates and altitude. In contrast to elite soccer, professional assistance concerning nutrition and training is rarely available for national elite referees of most countries. Therefore, special attention on education about adequate nutrition and fluid intake, about the dietary prevention of deficiencies (iron in female referees, vitamin D irrespective of sex and age) and basic precautions for travels abroad is warranted. In conclusion, the simple adoption of nutritional considerations from active soccer for referees may not be appropriate. Recommendations should respect gender differences, population specific physical characteristics and demands just as well as individual characteristics and special needs.


Introduction


Soccer (European “football”) is one of the most popular sports worldwide. The official Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) survey “Big count 2006” documented 207 member associations and 265 million people involved in this sport. The increasing number of active players, representing a 21 % and 54 % increase in registered male and female players respectively, from 2000 to 2006, further emphasizes the popularity and economic importance of national and international soccer championships. Match officials are an indispensable and inseparable part of soccer, independently of competition level or age classes. According to the laws of the game, a field referee (FR), two assistant referees (AR), and a fourth official are mandatory to control official matches 2 . In 2006, there were 840,000 registered referees, of which 10 % were women.

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