The low carbon development is the important trend of Chinese urbanism, and the gap between transportation infrastructure resource and travel demand induces to the transportation problems, such as congestion, energy, and safety. There is a missing connection with the Demand-Oriented Planning and Low-Carbon-Oriented Planning, since most of our discussion in the Urban Comprehensive Planning Proceed is focusing on the commuting congestion in the peak hour. This paper discussed the benefits and problems of the three solutions of transportation, based on the Transit Priority Strategy in China, including the transportation policy research, smart transportation research, as well as planning and design research. A further Model exploration and application for the smart low-carbon transit and non-motorized transportation system construction strategic decision making is discussed. The result shows around 30% energy consumption and CO2 emission could be waived if we choose the low-carbon city development mode. The solution and case study apply the Unit City mode and City Intelligent Energy Network technology in Xining City Comprehensive Planning to find out how to form the future development in the cities in China.
As the economic and social activity branch demand, travel and mobility request induce the widespread congestion, energy consumption and safety problems in the Middle and Small Scale cities in China. How to model our transportation congestion and energy consumption in cities to support our future development is the big issue for the City governments, especially for the planning bureau. The decision making process for the low carbon city development in transportation facet is connected with the factors, including traffic congestion reducing, travel safety increasing, and trip quality improving. Transit Oriented Development Strategy is an obviously solution to reduce the usage of private car, especially for the Chinese cites which have large amount of commuting residents and high density land-use mode, by transferring car use trips to transit.
The Transit Oriented Development Strategy face the two major challenges in China, one is the development of private car market with the rapid increasing almost 20% per year from 2008-2012, making the gap between infrastructure and car travel demand becoming wider; the other one is the missing connection with the nature pattern of urban development, since most of the city is constructed already and maybe not suitable for transit at all. So the solution for the future development could be two ways in China, when we use the Unit City mode and City Intelligent Energy Network technology, from the starting point of City development.
The Unit City mode for the future development is a mode which focuses on the balancing of Job and Work amounts in the land-use planning level. The City Intelligent Energy Network is a system which using the IOT (Internet of Things) technology to check the dynamic data and forecast the managing bottleneck for the city government, including the smart transportation system as the major part. A transportation model is developed already to test how this Unit City mode and City Intelligent Energy Network technology affecting our city, especially in transportation facet. The rapid increasing of the private car and travel demand is considered as one of the mobility change within the urban structure, landuse mode, and road resource, when widespread the considering about the low carbon development of the city life systems including the water system, energy using system, waste system, ecology system and other .
This paper is discussing the three solutions of the transportation last decades in China, and pointing out the major problems when they considering the low carbon developing. A strategic of the smart transit and well-designed non-motorized system is induced to support the Unit City mode and City Intelligent Energy Network technology, when we apply the whole model to describe the congestion and energy consumption together. Xining City is used as the case study to find out how the process done.
2. Literature Review
By the end of 2011, the urbanization rate of China has turned to the 50% limestone . As the important 18th 5-years report pointed out, the new type of industrialization would adhere to industry revolution, information technology application and agricultural modernization . Urbanization is repeatedly stressed as the greatest potential for expanding domestic demand . Take the European Union as example, in 2007 the overall urbanization rate of 72%, while 85 per cent of its GDP came from the city .
Therefore, the new circle of the future Chinese urbanization, focusing on the Middle and Small Scaled cities, would push the further development combining the four issues of China, when city becomes the basement of urbanization, industrialization, information technology and agriculture modernization. That would raise the mobility in these kinds of cities and dramatically change the travel behavior and modes for the new and old residents, which could be concluded as the experiences from the big cities development in China, that the transition from original non-polluting travel modes such as walking, cycling, to the fast, efficient public transport, taxis, and private cars.
To really resolve and prevent traffic congestion, energy consumption and safety issues in next round of Chinese urbanization process, the lessons from the experience of the development of big cities should be learned, where traffic jams and other problems is now widely accepted as normal issues of the development. That is the change idea from the determinate solution to the acceptation of problems. How could Middle and Small Scaled cities, especially the new town construction and planning lead the low carbon development, model analysis and strategic consideration within the basic information about its nature will be the way to go.