نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Microgrids represent a means of improving the conventional electrical grid network, making it more reliable, secure, cooperative, efficient and, especially cleaner. This paper presents the management of a hierarchical DC-coupled microgrid with distributed architecture implemented in a microgrid laboratory containing two renewable sources, namely wind and hydro. Power supply management strategies are applied in order to supply a critical, non-dispatchable load. Due to effective management, the microgrid is robust and capable of handling most of the problems that are associated with renewable energies.
Today, conventional power systems are evolving towards microgrid systems. Microgrids are emerging power system infrastructure composed of small-scale low voltage power supply networks designed to supply electrical load for a small community etc. Microgrids represent a means to improve the conventional electrical grid network in order for it to be more clean, reliable, secure, cooperative, and efficient. Therefore, microgrids have the following objectives: higher penetration of renewable energy, integration of storage, delivery efficiency improvement, stronger resiliency, and improved flexibility. Microgrids are expected to be more robust and cost-effective than the traditional approach of centralized grids. However, in order to design a functional microgrid, intelligent control is required [Nejabatkhah 2015, Colson 2012, Wang 2010]. Intelligence is needed while designing the individual controllers, converters, battery chargers etc. Yet, a perfectly deigned microgrid would not yield much energy if it is improperly operated. Hence, intelligent design by itself is not enough, intelligent management is needed. This leads to a huge need for intelligent microgrid management. Intelligent energy management of microgrids can be used to achieve a variety of objectives such as cost reduction, mitigation of heavy loads or matching the power generation and consumption profiles [Mohamed 2013, Wang 2010]. For example, an effective micro-grid management system could ensure better handling of the renewable energies by connecting extra loads or storage elements at peak supply or disconnect dispatchable load during low supply, it can compensate low renewable power supply with power from the main grid, it can make decisions regarding how much energy should be bought from the main power system and how much energy should be sold to it, etc.