نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
An attack on hardware typically results in a severer and difficult-to-recover damage, hence, it is our interest to focus this work on hardware security. A brief survey of security issues found in various application domains is presented, based on a collection of over seventy papers in IEEE Xplore archived since 2011. Challenges and potential solutions to different kinds of hardware attacks and threats are discussed. Finally, specific hardware security challenges are connected and mapped to each application domain.
Cyber security has become a major research and industry focus since the inception of the Internet. The U.S. government spent 7.5 billion in 2007 on cyber security, and this figure increased almost fourfold to 28 billion in 2017 . According to a UK government survey, almost half of the UK firms were having cyber security problems in 2017 . Since an attack can occur at any one of the layers (e.g., operating system, network, application software) in the cyber world, there are many approaches to combat the various cyber security attacks including malware, ransomware, denial-ofservice, etc. An attack on hardware typically results in a severer and difficult-to-recover damage. For example, Bidmeshki et al. demonstrate that even low-cost hardwarebased attacks could be catastrophic . Hence, we are interested to investigate issues related to hardware security. This work is based on a brief survey of over seventy prominent papers on hardware security published in IEEE Xplore since 2011. We start with examining hardware security issues pertinent to each of the five identified broad application domains in section II. Next, hardware security challenges found in the survey and the corresponding potential solutions are described in section III. By connecting the materials in sections II and III, specific hardware security challenges are mapped onto each application domain in section IV. Finally, discussions and conclusions are presented in section V.