ارتباط تخلیه حافظه و آسیب پذیری در دستکاری حافظه
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ارتباط تخلیه حافظه و آسیب پذیری در دستکاری حافظه

عنوان فارسی مقاله: تخلیه حافظه ما را در برابر دستکاری حافظه آسیب پذیر می کند
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Offloading memory leaves us vulnerable to memory manipulation
مجله/کنفرانس: شناخت - Cognition
رشته های تحصیلی مرتبط: روانشناسی
گرایش های تحصیلی مرتبط: روانشناسی شناخت
کلمات کلیدی فارسی: حافظه، تخلیه شناختی، حافظه توزیع شده، حافظه نادرست
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی: Memory، Cognitive offloading، Distributed memory، False memory
نوع نگارش مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)
نمایه: MedLine - Scopus - Master Journals List - JCR
شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.023
دانشگاه: University of Waterloo, Canada
ناشر: الزویر - Elsevier
نوع ارائه مقاله: ژورنال
نوع مقاله: ISI
سال انتشار مقاله: 2019
ایمپکت فاکتور: 3/867 در سال 2018
شاخص H_index: 165 در سال 2019
شاخص SJR: 2/700 در سال 2018
شناسه ISSN: 0010-0277
شاخص Quartile (چارک): Q1 در سال 2018
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی: PDF
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 12
وضعیت ترجمه: ترجمه نشده است
قیمت مقاله انگلیسی: رایگان
آیا این مقاله بیس است: خیر
آیا این مقاله مدل مفهومی دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله پرسشنامه دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله متغیر دارد: ندارد
کد محصول: E12943
رفرنس: دارای رفرنس در داخل متن و انتهای مقاله
فهرست انگلیسی مطالب

Abstract


1- Introduction


2- Experiment 1


3- Experiment 2


4- Experiment 3


5- General discussion


References

نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله

Abstract


We often offload memory demands onto external artefacts (e.g., smartphones). While this practice allows us to subvert the limitations of our biological memory, storing memories externally exposes them to manipulation. To examine the impact of such manipulation, we report three experiments, two of which were pre-registered. Individuals performed a memory task where they could offload to-be-recalled information to an external store and on a critical trial, we surreptitiously manipulated the information in that store. Results demonstrated that individuals rarely noticed this manipulation. In addition, when individuals had information inserted into their external memory stores, they often encoded it into their biological memory, thereby leading to the creation of a false memory. The reported results highlight one of the cognitive consequences of offloading our memory to external artefacts.


Introduction


Humans have long sought to offload demands on their memory by using external artefacts (Clark, 2010a; Donald, 1991; Nestojko, Finley, & Roediger, 2013; Risko & Gilbert, 2016). Nevertheless, we lack a deep understanding of the principles governing this distributed form of remembering. The recent proliferation and increasing availability of mass storage devices presents our species with a remarkable opportunity to store large amounts of easily accessible information that is immune from the vicissitudes of our biological memory; however, offloading memory creates its own set of risks (Carr, 2008; Eskritt & Ma, 2014; Risko & Gilbert, 2016; Sparrow, Liu, & Wegner, 2011). One such risk is that offloading memory to an external location exposes it to manipulation by a third party (Clark, 2010b; Sterelny, 2004). For example, an agent could surreptitiously alter our “memory” by manipulating the information in our external memory stores. Understanding how individuals respond to this kind of manipulation would provide insight into how individuals manage the unique challenges presented by distributing memory demands over internal and external spaces (e.g., transactive memory systems; Arango-Muñoz, 2013; Ferguson, McLean, & Risko, 2015; Gilbert, 2015a, 2015b; Risko, Ferguson, & McLean, 2016; Risko & Dunn, 2015; Sparrow et al., 2011; Ward, 2013; Wegner, 1995; Sutton, Harris, Keil, & Barnier, 2010; Storm, Stone, & Benjamin, 2017). Provided the ubiquity of offloading as a means of remembering, understanding our susceptibility to external memory manipulation, the factors that modulate it, and the impact of such manipulation on our biological memory is needed. To this end, we report three experiments examining external memory manipulation using a novel paradigm. In the context of a distributed cognitive system, individuals face various challenges (Arango-Muñoz, 2013). This includes deciding whether to solve a cognitive problem relying on internal resources or external resources (or a mix of the two; i.e., the “selection” problem; Arango-Muñoz, 2013). Much recent work has focused on this aspect of cognitive offloading (i.e., how do we decide to offload to-be-remembered information rather than store it internally; Cherkaoui & Gilbert, 2017; Gilbert, 2015a, 2015b; Risko, Medimorec, Chisholm, & Kingstone, 2014; Risko & Dunn, 2015; Risko & Gilbert, 2016). In addition to deciding whether to rely on an external resource, individuals also have to decide whether to rely on or “endorse” the information provided by that external resource (i.e., the “endorsement” problem; Arango-Muñoz, 2013). For example, in a memory context, if an individual stores some to-be-remembered information in an external location, at the time of retrieval from that external store, the individual needs to endorse that information as the original to-be-remembered information. Previous research suggests that individuals may have great difficulty detecting manipulations of their external memory stores or, in other words, solving this endorsement problem.

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