Objective: The objective of this work was to find out whether specific Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) profiles exist which may constitute a risk factor for the consumption of legal and illegal substances (alcohol, tobacco, psychoactive drugs, cannabis, cocaine and hallucinogens) by young Spaniards. Methodology: An ad hoc prospective ex post facto design questionnaire was prepared covering socio-demographic data, consumption behavior and the Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP, Jenkins Activity Survey Form H, JASE-H). The sample comprised 3816 young people between the ages of 18 and 29 from the province of Cordoba (Spain). Results: Hierarchical clustering was used to obtain 3 groups; one characterized by low scores (the TBBP group), one characterized by medium scores and the third characterized by hostility-competitiveness (the HC group). Logistic regression showed that membership of the HC group was a risk factor for the consumption of psychoactive drugs and illegal substances, while membership of the TBBP group was a protective factor for the consumption of legal substances. Conclusions: Specific personality profiles were identified which constitute either a risk factor or a protective factor for substance abuse. These results will prove useful to drug consumption prevention and treatment programs focused on the above-mentioned personality profiles.
The consumption of psychoactive substances does not depend on a single factor, but on multiple aspects such as family history (evidence of genotypes), relationship with peers, individual and cultural factors, and by-passing crazes (Arpana, Jacobson, Prescott, & Kenneth, 2004; Belmonte, Ruiz-Olivares, & Herruzo, 2016; García & Carrasco, 2003). Drug consumption among young people has become a global health concern, with the latest data showing an increase in substance abuse. According to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Abuse, 18.7 million young people consumed drugs in 2016 (EMCDDA, 2017). A deeper understanding of the variables which affect initiation and persistence in the consumption of psychoactive substances is of great help when designing efficient prevention and intervention strategies (Le Bon et al., 2004; Natividade, Aguirre, Bizarro, & Hutz, 2012). Of the individual factors involved, personality may play an important role in a person’s predisposition and precipitation towards substance abuse, continued use of substances and dependence on the same (García & Carrasco, 2003). Although strictly speaking it would not be correct to speak of addictive personalities, it is known that personality variables in people who engage in substance abuse differ from those in people who do not engage in such behavior (Cervera martínez et al., 2001). Personality traits might be thought of as pre-existing factors which influence a person’s decision to behave in a certain way and then persist in that behavior. However, no evidence has yet been produced regarding the specificity with which those traits may affect substance consumption (Le Bon et al., 2004). Personality traits that have been linked with consumption include the desire for new sensations and experiences (Santuario, Cuadra, Sánchez, & Urcelay, 2012); impulsiveness (Verdejo, Lawrence, & Clark, 2008; Perry & Carroll, 2008; Doran, McChargue, & Cohen, 2007; Pedrero, 2009); and Cloninger’s temperament dimensions (Leventhal et al., 2007). Despite attempts to predict what type of substance is more likely to be consumed by analyzing personality, the key behavioral and personality factors associated with drug use have still not yet been established (Le Bon et al., 2004).