The fast transition to the electrification of the energy system, combined with an exponential growth of the market share of electric vehicles, is leading to a tight interrelation between electric energy production and transportation, two prominent sectors in fossil fuels consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Accelerating this process, the management of electric fluxes, aiming at optimizing production and demand coupling, plays a crucial role in reaching the net-zero emission target. The proposed software platform is designed to optimally manage the energy fluxes for a solar powered parking lot, serving a fleet of electric vehicles; the real-time knowledge of energy production and demand, in conjunction with forecasted power generation, allows the maximization of renewable energy self-consumption, thus reducing the exchange with the external grid. The software platform can work either in design mode, allowing the dimensioning of the various parking lot components, or in real-time mode managing instantaneously the energy balance. As a case study, it is tested on the 2019 parking lot mobility data of a research center, assuming a complete transformation of the then existing fleet of employees' cars to electric vehicles. A comparison of the resulting energy flows with those projected by an established commercial tool is performed, as well as a preliminary economic evaluation. Both consistency of the simulation results and favorable economics validate the presented smart charging algorithm and Internet of Things platform for the real-time energy management of a solar parking lot.
The steep growth of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the use of fossil resources requires fast and challenging solutions; transportation and electricity production sectors are responsible for around two thirds of global CO2 emissions. According to the numbers published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its monthly energy review of August 2022 , the total consumption of primary energy in the U.S.A. in the year 2021 was 28.5 Million terawatt-hours (TWh) or 2.4546 Billion tonnes of oil equivalent (toe), 7.9 Million TWh (0.6782 Billion toe) of which are used by the transportation sector and 10.8 Million TWh (0.9267 Billion toe) by the electric power sector. 94% of the total energy used for transportation came from petroleum and natural gas and 6% from biofuels and electricity . In 2021, according to EIA estimates , cars, light trucks, and motorcycles accounted for the largest shares of total U.S. transportation sector energy consumption, with light-duty vehicles (cars, small trucks, vans, sport utility vehicles, and motorcycles) accounting for 54.2%, commercial and freight trucks 4.5%, jets, planes, and other aircraft 8.7%, boat, ships, and other watercraft 4.6%, trains and buses 2.6%, the military sector 2.0%, pipelines 2.8%, lubricants 0.5%. Globally, carbon dioxide emissions associated with transportation accounted in 2021 for 7620 Mt; 600 Mt less than pre pandemic level by 2019 .
Since the onset of the industrial revolution, ever increasing amounts of GHG have been released into the atmosphere. While the energy mix and corresponding supply chains shifted from coal to oil and more recently towards natural gas, the prosperity of humankind still relies on fossil fuels and energy conversion systems based on fuels combustion. Even today, transportation and electricity production are heavily reliant on CO2 emitting technologies. But there is a silver lining, as technological improvements coupled with a strong cost reduction enabled the fast growth of the total installed energy capacity of renewable energy sources for electricity production (RES-E). Together with powerful battery energy storage systems (BESSs), they will impose drastic changes in these two historically conservative sectors. Today, the fast growth of electric vehicles (EVs) related technologies, as well as their forecasted market penetration, reaching the record of 6.6 million vehicles sold in 2021 , generates new scenarios impacting the electric energy production and transportation market. Based on existing climate-focused policy pledges and announcements, the International Energy Agency predicts for 2030 EVs to represent more than 30% of vehicles sold globally across all modes (excluding two- and three-wheelers) and the global electricity demand for EVs to reach 1100 TWh; then about 4% of the total final electricity demand .
This paper presented the SPEM IoT platform, capable of simulating, designing and real time managing the smart charging of EV fleets in a RES-E driven parking lot.
A deterministic rule-based algorithm was introduced for the fine-grained management of the energy fluxes between EVs and the different electric components of a solar parking lot. Since the algorithm does not utilize any assumption on the future mobility and energy demand it can handle unforeseen changes avoiding critical situations.
As it was shown, intra-day deferral serves to shift EV charging demand towards the time of maximum production, guided by MPC, constantly analyzing the momentary situation of 1) intermittent solar production, 2) stored energy and energy storage availability, 3) charging station occupancy and 4) solar production forecast.
An extensive case study was conducted, where the design mode of SPEM was applied to the historic situation of an Italian Research Center in 2019, assuming the substitution of all employee’s cars by EVs. As a benchmark for the validation of SPEM, HOMER® Grid, a commercial software for the modeling, design and simulation of electrical infrastructure, was used.