RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is highly developing technology in new days. It is also known as “internet of things”. Internet of Things is identified as one of the main pillars to nextgeneration Internet. Two technologies supporting this technological advancement are Radio Frequency Identification and Wireless Sensor Networks. They are used to automatically identify people, objects, and animals, as well as monitoring environmental parameters, and area monitoring. But in past years, RFID technology was not used that much because of lack of standardization and high costs. Latest technologies have brought costs down and standards are being developed. Today RFID is mostly used as a medium for numerous tasks including managing supply chains, tracking livestock, preventing counterfeiting, controlling building access, and supporting automated checkout. The use of RFID is limited by security concerns and delays in standardization. This paper describes RFID technology like how it works, its architecture, its applications in today’s world and also comparison with the other identification technologies. It offers the promise of reduced labor levels, enhanced visibility, and improved inventory management. There are many types of tags and reader available in market for different types of applications. Because each tag has some strength and weakness. This paper describes the different types of RFID tags. RFID has many application in many fields like in retail industry, agriculture, vehicle management, underwater applications, healthcare, smart homes and for security and safety purpose etc.
RFID terms as Radio frequency identification, It is wireless communication technology. Radio waves are used to automatically identify, track, and authenticate items or people by the RFID technology. RFID not a new technology. RFID firstly used in world war 2nd to identify the friendly aircrafts. The name of the application used in World war 2nd was IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) . But in the present days RFID technology used in new advancement with in many public or private sector. RFID is an automatic identification like smart cards, bar codes, and voice recognition etc. used in machines to identify objects. But unlike barcodes line of sight is not required for operation of RFID. So RFID is better than barcodes due to it has greater read range, large storage capacity, and capability to reprogrammable and without line of sight . So RFID is a technology that using radio waves to transmits the identity of any object or item. This is the technology that automatically identify item, object or people and the capture information without data entry is store into computer. RFID technology is used over 60 year but its uses in industry and public sector from year 2003. Now these days RFID is used for many application like in retail industry, vehicle management, defence and agriculture etc. RFID is faster technology. RFID is well established and versatile technology. If the performance of RFID is considered then the main factor are fast identification, scalability, reliability etc. Because the RFID technology is used mainly in real time system and in real time system time, cost, memory and mobility is most important. So in real time system we can’t ignore these factors. RFID used the term EPC (Electronic Product Code) that differentiate the one object from others. The EPC is the unique number and it stores the information about the object.
3. Basic Components of RFID RFID
basically has three main components. That is:
3.1) RFID Tags:
RFID Tags are the building block of RFID technology. Tag component is emits the radio signals. RFID tags is combination of microchip and antenna. Each RFID tag is contains a unique identification number which is stored in the microchip of tag. This microchip is built with the integrated circuit, sensors, I/O ports and embedded logic on a silicon chip. Tags antenna is used to transmission of radio waves. Sometimes RFID tags is also known as transponder. RFID tags available in different shapes and sizes according to which environments and applications they will be used.
3.2) RFID Readers: RFID Readers act like the heart of the RFID technology. Reader is main component that is responsible for functioning and controlling the RFID system with particular frequency. Reader consists of an antenna, decoder and a transceiver. The transceiver used to receive the radio signal, then decoder is used to decode the analog signal to digital form and antenna is used emit/picks radio signals. The reader range is depends upon the how much frequency is used, basically reader range is some inch to 200+ feet .After decodes the radio waves into bit stream, it gives the information to the host computer or device controller.
3.3) Host controller: Host computer is used to use the information for further processing or application depends upon which type for application it is used. Host also called system software that are combination of four components. That are: Edge interface: Establish communication and retrieve data from reader is the responsibility of the edge interface. Middleware: Filtering, counting of tags, controls and manage the reader is responsibility of the middleware. Enterprise back end interface. Enterprise back-end.
4. Functioning of RFID Technology
RFID is wireless technology that transmits the identification of any object using radio waves. So RFID tags is the device that emits the radio signals and the RFID reader picks these signals, convert into the bit stream and send to the host computer for further processing. The reading range of the reader is depends upon how much frequency are used for communication.
5. TYPES OF TAGS
Mainly three types of tags.
5.1) Active tags: Active tag has own power supply. Active tag used this power to integrated circuits and to transmit the data to the reader. Active tag has onboard electronics and antenna. Active tags are more expensive compared than passive tags. Its range is 10 to 100 meters.
5.2) Passive tags: Passive tags has no internal battery power. The microchip of passive tag is sleep mode, until the tag is in the reader range. Reader sends the electromagnetic waves to wake up the microchip. So passive tag is sleep mode and active only when it comes into the reader range. Passive tag is less expensive compare then active tags. The range of the passive tag is just a meter.
5.3) Semi-passive tags: Semi-passive tags are lay between active and passive tags compared to both price and capabilities. It is term both as semi-passive or semi active tag. Semi-passive tags use a battery to power the signal, but only respond when they range of the reader. Thus provide the energy efficiency of the RFID system. In the end, semi-passive tags in the reader zone will not be continuously activated until their battery are exhausted.