As we can see in recent studies on mobile banking, there is an increasing number of papers addressing this new technology. Mobile banking contributes to the quality of life of people living in both developed countries, and also in emerging economies. In this context, we develop this paper in order to compare the determinants of mobile banking use between respondents from two countries with different levels of development: Brazil and the United States. Our theoretical model includes six variables as determinant factors of mobile banking use. In order to analyze path coefficients and test the six hypotheses, we employed a structural equation model. We also employed a quantitative test (multi-group analysis) to analyze the difference of path coefficients between the models of the two countries. The main results indicate similarities among the perceptions of the respondents that participated in the survey, but differences in coefficient magnitude.
Technological and internet development changed the way in which financial services are offered and used (Bhatiasevi, 2015; Laukkanen, 2016; Lee & Chung, 2009; Oliveira, Faria, Thomas, & Popovič, 2014), especially when we take into account mobile internet and mobile technologies (Bons, Alt, Lee, & Weber, 2012; Ha, Canedoli, Baur, & Bick, 2012; Sharma, 2017). In a set of new banking channels offered by banks (Calisir & Gumussoy, 2008), we can highlight mobile banking (Mohammadi, 2015). It consists of using mobile devices to contact banking services through wireless connection (Afshan & Sharif, 2016), and represents a worldwide phenomenon (Shaikh & Karjaluoto, 2015) with important implications for current and future financial transactions (Kishore & Sequeira, 2016). Mobile banking “means that users adopt mobile terminals to access various payment services, such as account balance enquiry, transference, bill payment and financial management” (Zhou, 2012a, p. 1518Zhou, 2012aZhou, 2012a, p. 1518). It has a considerable value for customers and for banks (Baabdullah, Alalwan, Rana, Kizgin, & Patil, 2019). Therefore, this technology can respond to some customers’ needs, such as performing banking activities without going to an ATM or bank branch. Both customers and banks are benefited by mobile banking services, such as online money transfers, automatic check payments, personal savings plans, bill payments, timely information, unlimited remote access, and immediacy, among others (Afshan & Sharif, 2016; Aker & Mbiti, 2010; Baptista & Oliveira, 2015, 2016; Laukkanen, 2016; Yuan, Liu, Yao, & Liu, 2014). Mobile payment services (Kapoor, Dwivedi, & Williams, 2015), mobile government (Shareef, Kumar, Dwivedi, & Kumar, 2016) and short messaging services of mobile phones (Shareef, Dwivedi, Kumar, & Kumar, 2017) are also among the benefits of mobile technologies. This growth in the use of mobile devices has a positive effect on the demand for mobile banking (Veríssimo, 2016). Therefore, several studies have been developed in order to improve the public’s understanding of mobile banking adoption. Promoting competition for innovative solutions in emerging economies, such as mobile banking, can contribute to the deepening of financial services (Cole, Sampson, & Zia, 2011). Furthermore, this technology can be effective in extending financial services to non-urban regions (Gurgand, Pederson, & Yaron, 1996). So, emerging technological innovations can reduce costs for banks and increase quality of services that they offer to customers (Cull, Demirgüç-Kunt, & Morduch, 2009), especially due to the lack of financial infrastructure in developing countries (Jack, Ray, & Suri, 2013), facilitating financial inclusion and economic growth (Kishore & Sequeira, 2016).