This chapter describes the total quality management (TQM), which includes management philosophy and style along with statistical process control (SPC). TQM assumes that, given the chance, workers will perform best when they know and understand the company or process goals. Productivity should not be enforced by rules, regulations, monitoring, performance standards, and other degrading methods. Arbitrary standards, personnel evaluations, and other humiliating tools should not be used to increase production and efficiency from workers. With paper, there are intrinsic tradeoffs in quality. Choices are made about which properties must be decreased to improve others. For example, for any type of paper, there is always a choice between tensile and tear strengths. Improving one means decreasing the other. Furthermore, SPC or statistical quality control (SQC) involves data collection and analysis, modeling of systems, problem solving, and design of experiments. Once a choice is made, the tools of TQM and SPC can be used to maintain the process, reduce variation, and improve efficiency.
22-1- Introduction to Total Quality Management and Statistical Process Control Introduction Deming's 14 Points for Management
When speaking about quality control, it is important to know the background of the key people behind developments in this field. Three people from Bell Telephone Laboratories, W. A. Shewhart, H. F. Dodge, and H. G. Roming, contributed much to statistical quality control (SQC) during its early years in the 1920s. Dr. W. Edwards Deming is considered to be the originator of total quality management (TQM), which includes management philosophy and style along with statistical process control (SPC). By the end of the 1930s, Deming (1938) had written a book, helped edit one (Shewhart, 1939) about statistical analysis in regard to quality control, and began working for the U.S. Census Office. During World War II, quality control rose to prominence and with it, the work of Deming. In the 1950s, his ideas on how companies should manage their people and processes were not widely accepted by American management. He took his ideas to Japan, where he started by assisting with their census and is credited with helping that country become highly successful in industry. TQM has two important elements to it: a management philosophy (the human aspect) and methods of process control (the process aspect). Philip B. Crosby has contributed much to the terminology and economic analysis of investments in quality improvement. Dr. Joseph M. Juran contributed to the organization methodology to implement and support project improvement. Juran (1951, 1962) believed that inspection of the final product is not an efficient or successful method of making high quality products. Instead, inspection of materials and methods should be made throughout the process. Quality should not be stamped on the product as the last step but should be incorporated throughout the process. One can discuss quality at length without defining it, but trying to achieve quality control means that specific goals must be kept in mind. Quality has many facets. One of the most obvious in paper products is product variation. It is always desirable to make one’s product in a reliable and consistent manner. It is said that the color of your paper is not as important as making it the same color all the time. Quality is also the suitability of a product for its intended purpose. Another aspect is the cost. One can always make a quality product if money is no object; however, a quality product that few can afford does very little good unless you are contracting for the government. TQM involves more than just SPC, which is not a management style, only a tool. This aspect of TQM is considered separately.