Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the fragmented literature on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), leader–member exchange (LMX), learning, innovative work behavior (IWB) and employee performance across different countries, disciplines and organizations, thereby broadening the literature breath and making gap identification comprehensive. Second, it provides information on how much studies have been concentrated on Africa with the goal of provoking scholarly work in a unique cultural setting on the interrelatedness of these concepts.
Design/methodology/approach - Relevant literature search was undertaken using key search terms, “employee performance,” “OCB,” “LMX,” “IWB,” “individual learning” and “team learning.”
Findings - The findings show positive relationships between the behaviors and employee performance. They also reveal an interesting diversity in the study across multidisciplinary fields holding both cultural and contextual significance for academia and practitioners.
Research limitations/implications - The limitation of literature to peer-reviewed journals from the authors’ university library might have missed important information not in this domain. Further studies must make use of additional search terms and engines excluded from this study to provide a more comprehensive analysis.
Practical implications - The paper has important managerial implications for practitioners. The analysis can support the understanding of employee performance from a broader and more diverse view points; and help in providing insight into real-life opportunities, constraints and solutions in enhancing performance management.
Originality/value - This systematic literature review highlights important knowledge gaps which need to be explored especially in the African and Ghanaian contexts.
The notion of positive organization behaviors is believed, can create a positive psychology in the working environment to enhance performance (Avey et al., 2010; Luthans, 2002). Research in management studies continues to attract and deepen understanding of behaviors such as leader–member exchange (LMX), organization citizenship behavior, learning, innovative work behavior (IWB) and their positive effects on performance in organizations (Organ, 2018; Sun et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2008). Globalization, a knowledge society and changes in the work environments have brought into sharp focus the need for organizations to sustain competitive advantage. To achieve this, the intangible internal human element reflected in knowledge, skills and attitudes (Kamoche, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Barney and Wright, 1998); and the conscious effort of applying positive measureable human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be developed and managed for performance improvement in organizations are necessary (Luthans, 2002). This has been further aggravated in research on positive organizational behavior paradigms that spur performance (Bolino and Grant, 2016). In the bid to understand and explore the phenomenon of individual or employee performance, many empirical studies have been conducted on the subject in relation to different antecedents and other outcome variables. For instance, leadership, customer satisfaction and performance (Ahearne et al., 2005); leadership, resistance, empowerment, satisfaction and performance (Vecchio et al., 2010); empowering leadership, goal orientation and performance (Wong Humborstad et al., 2014); turnover and performance (Wong et al., 2015); commitment, engagement and performance (Nazir and Ul Islam, 2017); learning and performance (Van Der Vegt and Bunderson, 2005); and organizational commitment, citizenship behavior and performance (Asiedu et al., 2014). Similarly, different employee/job models have been developed and used in empirical studies either as stand-alone models; models for specific occupations such as the military and managers; and models that can be used across different occupations (Viswesvaran and Ones, 2000).