اثر دیجیتالی شدن بر ایجاد و تخریب شغل
ترجمه نشده

اثر دیجیتالی شدن بر ایجاد و تخریب شغل

عنوان فارسی مقاله: آیا این زمان متفاوت است؟ چگونه دیجیتالی شدن بر ایجاد و تخریب شغل تأثیر می گذارد
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Is this time different? How digitalization influences job creation and destruction
مجله/کنفرانس: سیاست تحقیق – Research Policy
رشته های تحصیلی مرتبط: مدیریت
گرایش های تحصیلی مرتبط: کارآفرینی، نوآوری تکنولوژی
کلمات کلیدی فارسی: دیجیتالی شدن، استخدام، نوآوری، ایجاد شغل، تخریب شغل، تغییر فناورانه
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی: Digitalization، Employment، Innovation، Job creation، Job destruction، Technological change
نوع نگارش مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)
نمایه: Scopus – Master Journals List – JCR
شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2019.03.010
دانشگاه: University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg
ناشر: الزویر - Elsevier
نوع ارائه مقاله: ژورنال
نوع مقاله: ISI
سال انتشار مقاله: 2019
ایمپکت فاکتور: 6.281 در سال 2018
شاخص H_index: 206 در سال 2019
شاخص SJR: 3.409 در سال 2018
شناسه ISSN: 0048-7333
شاخص Quartile (چارک): Q1 در سال 2018
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی: PDF
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 10
وضعیت ترجمه: ترجمه نشده است
قیمت مقاله انگلیسی: رایگان
آیا این مقاله بیس است: بله
آیا این مقاله مدل مفهومی دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله پرسشنامه دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله متغیر دارد: دارد
کد محصول: E13628
رفرنس: دارای رفرنس در داخل متن و انتهای مقاله
فهرست انگلیسی مطالب

Abstract


1. Introduction


2. Institutional background - a snapshot of the Swiss economy


3. Empirical investigation


4. Results


5. Conclusions and policy implications


Appendix A. Supplementary data


References

نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله

Abstract


With the process of digitalization now in full swing, many are wondering how the adoption of new technologies influences job creation and destruction. Much hinges upon the specific tasks that machines take on and how many new tasks are created through the adoption of new digital technologies. Some argue that most tasks that are at risk of automation are those performed by rather low- to medium-skilled employees, while most new tasks that emerge from the adoption of digital technologies complement high-skilled labor. We present evidence derived from representative survey data from Switzerland that is consistent with this view. Specifically, we find that increased investment in digitalization is associated with increased employment of high-skilled workers and reduced employment of low-skilled workers, with a slightly positive net effect. The main effects are almost entirely driven by firms that employ machine-based digital technologies, e.g. robots, 3D printing or the Internet of Things. We do not find any significant employment effects when non-machine-based digital technologies are considered, e.g. ERP, e-commerce or cooperation support systems.


Introduction


There is widespread consensus among both academics and practitioners that innovation is the main driver of productivity, economic growth and job creation. Whether this holds true with regard to innovations that fall under the umbrella of ‘digitalization’ is a subject of vigorous debate, though. This debate is particularly controversial when it comes to the impact of digitalization on job creation and destruction. Indeed, for more than a century, bookshelves have been filled with analyses on how technological development influences jobs. Many prominent academics have argued – and some still argue – that man and machine are in a race, which machines will eventually win, leading to mass unemployment (e.g. Leontief, 1952; Ford, 2015). Historical examples of jobs that were washed away by technological developments seem to confirm this view, e.g. stoker that were replaced by electrical engines. At the same time, it is not a controversial statement that many new jobs were created in the wake of technological developments of the past (e.g. Landes, 1969; Chandler, 1977; Mokyr, 1990). After all, consistent with Schumpeter’s concept of creative destruction, the net impact on jobs seems to be positive (Mastrostefano and Pianta, 2009; Kogan et al., 2017).1 The crucial, yet unanswered, question is whether this time is different. One way to think about potential job creation and destruction conceptually is to differentiate between tasks that are regularly performed by human beings but could be performed equally well or more efficiently by machines, versus tasks that cannot be substituted by machine work, or new complementary tasks that are created because of machine adoption. Many politicians and employees feel challenged by the ongoing digital revolution because the new technologies behind it often seem to be direct substitutes for tasks that are regularly performed by human beings.

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