نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Requested and sponsored by the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT), this study was carried to evaluate the implementation plan of the TAT sustainable tourism practice (the 7 Greens Concept) to Pai District, Mae Hong Son Province. Assessment tools included a questionnaire for domestic tourists visiting Pai (n = 200) and small tourism related business interview (n=15). Indicators applied to evaluate the outcomes from the implementation of 7 Greens Concept through tourists’ questionnaire were structured in a meeting by the Director of the TAT Regional and Provincial Sectors of 20 persons. The results showed that the domestic tourists visiting Pai felt that tourism environments in Pai did not reach their expectation. Interviewees who are small tourism related business in Pai recognized that the TAT promoting conservation activities for sustainable tourism but only a few of them involved in the implementation of the activities.
The beginning of the idea, the term and concept of sustainability was initiated from the concern over aspects of conservation and resource usage (Miller & Twinning-Ward, 2006). Starting from the early twentieth century, the concept gained rapid recognition with the promotion and assistance of global organization such as the United Nations (UN), the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (Weaver, 2006). Consequently; the regional organizations such as the European Union, the Organization of American States (OAS), and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) were also emphasis on environmental conservation through significant publications such as Carson’s (1962) Silent Spring and Hardin’s (1968) The Tragedy of the Common. These environmental movements make human being understood and aware of the devastating environmental consequence caused by uncontrolled human activities (Miller & Twinning-Ward, 2006). The implementation of the sustainable concept was well establish in forestry conservation including zoning for recreation purposes by the early twentieth century (Nash, 1968). In the late 1950’s the concept has also been pragmatic to human use over the land and the outdoor recreation activities known as carrying capacity. Later the carrying capacity was extended and integrated with biophysical and societal aspects to create a more sophisticate carrying capacity concept (Mitchell, 1989). Therefore, sustainable development criteria can be viewed not only as an environmental policy that focus on the need to reunite the present and future economic stability through the environmental conservation, but also a development to increase the quality of human life (IUCN & UNEP, 1991).