ارزیابی چرخه عمر انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای
ترجمه نشده

ارزیابی چرخه عمر انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای

عنوان فارسی مقاله: ارزیابی چرخه عمر انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای در وزارت دفاع نروژ برای کاهش تغییرات آب و هوایی
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Assessing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the Norwegian defence sector for climate change mitigation
مجله/کنفرانس: مجله تولید پاک تر – Journal of Cleaner Production
رشته های تحصیلی مرتبط: محیط زیست، جغرافیا
گرایش های تحصیلی مرتبط: آلودگی هوا، تغییرات آب و هوایی اقلیمی
کلمات کلیدی فارسی: کاهش تغییرات آب و هوایی، وزارت دفاع، چرخه عمر انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای، محاسبات
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی: Climate change mitigation, Defence sectorLife-cycle greenhouse gas emission, calculations
نوع نگارش مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی (Research Article)
نمایه: Scopus – Master Journals List – JCR
شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119196
دانشگاه: Norwegian University of Technology, Trondheim, Norway
ناشر: الزویر - Elsevier
نوع ارائه مقاله: ژورنال
نوع مقاله: ISI
سال انتشار مقاله: 2020
ایمپکت فاکتور: 7.096 در سال 2019
شاخص H_index: 150 در سال 2020
شاخص SJR: 1.620 در سال 2019
شناسه ISSN: 0959-6526
شاخص Quartile (چارک): Q1 در سال 2019
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی: PDF
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی: 8
وضعیت ترجمه: ترجمه نشده است
قیمت مقاله انگلیسی: رایگان
آیا این مقاله بیس است: خیر
آیا این مقاله مدل مفهومی دارد: ندارد
آیا این مقاله پرسشنامه دارد: /ندارد
آیا این مقاله متغیر دارد: ندارد
کد محصول: E14171
رفرنس: دارای رفرنس در داخل متن و انتهای مقاله
فهرست انگلیسی مطالب

Abstract


1- Introduction


2- Materials and methods


3- Results


4- Discussion


5- Conclusions


Acknowledgments


Appendix A. Supplementary data


References

نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله

Abstract


The military sector is an important global player in terms of monetary expenditure and resource use. However, reporting of military greenhouse gas emissions is often embedded into other activities and quantitative estimations are scarce. This paper assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from the Norwegian defence sector from an organisational perspective. The total annual emissions add up to 0.8 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents, corresponding to approximately 1.1% of the national emissions from Norwegian consumption. The results show that upstream activities are the main contributors to emission (68%), with only 32% allocated to the reporting organisation. From a management perspective, this distinction is important since these emissions may be mitigated through green procurement practices, in contrast to direct emissions that require operational reductions.


Introduction


World military expenditure is estimated to have reached $1739 billion, representing 2.2 percent of the global gross domestic product (GDP), in 2017 (Tian et al., 2018). The military sector and defence industry are therefore major global players, using considerable resources and subsequently affecting the environment. Even though the environmental impact of military activities has been discussed and debated for centuries, few documented studies of the sector’s environmental impact exist and most are connected to biodiversity and land use (Hanson, 2018; Lawrence et al., 2015; Nuttall et al., 2017; Vertegaal, 1989; Zentelis et al., 2017). Indirect correlations between military energy use, especially fossil fuel use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been discussed previously (Bildirici, 2017; Clark et al., 2010; Nuttall et al., 2017), but quantitative estimations are scarce. According to the Kyoto protocol and, subsequently, the Paris agreement, emissions from military activities are to be included in the national emissions inventory if they are accrued within national borders. Reporting of overseas activities or impacts of warfare is not required. The emissions from military activities are often embedded into other activities, such as energy production, transportation, and industrial activities, or taken out of the reporting (Michaelowa and Koch, 2001). A few studies on sector-specific calculations of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK and Australia have been found, indicating that defence activities contribute to approximately 1% of the annual emissions of greenhouse gases in these countries (Bailey, 2009; Wood and Dey, 2009). Figures from the US are within the same range, varying from 25.4 million tonnes annually from direct fuel consumption (Belcher et al., 2019) to 172 million tonnes including electricity use and upstream emissions (Liska and Perrin, 2010). This is equivalent to 0.5e3.3% of the total US emissions in 2017 (EIA, 2019).

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