نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, the spread of this virus is ongoing. SARS-CoV-2 is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterised by pulmonary infection in humans. The efforts of international health authorities have since focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as the search for therapies able to counter the most severe effects of the disease. In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a publichealth emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Preliminary trials of chloroquine repurposing in the treatment of COVID19 in China have been encouraging, leading to several new trials. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of chloroquine interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
Chloroquine is an amine acidotropic form of quinine that was synthesised in Germany by Bayer in 1934 and emerged approximately 70 years ago as an effective substitute for natural quinine [1,2]. Quinine is a compound found in the bark of Cinchona trees native to Peru and was the previous drug of choice against malaria . For decades, chloroquine was a front-line drug for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria and is one of the most prescribed drugs worldwide . Chloroquine and the 4-aminoquinoline drug hydroxychloroquine belong to the same molecular family. Hydroxychloroquine differs from chloroquine by the presence of a hydroxyl group at the end of the side chain: the N-ethyl substituent is βhydroxylated. This molecule is available for oral administration in the form of hydroxychloroquine sulfate. Hydroxychloroquine has pharmacokinetics similar to that of chloroquine, with rapid gastrointestinal absorption and renal elimination. However, the clinical indications and toxic doses of these drugs slightly differ. In malaria, the indication for chloroquine was a high dose for a short period of time (due to its toxicity at high doses) or a low dose for a long period of time. Hydroxychloroquine was reported to be as active as chloroquine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and less toxic, but it is much less active than chloroquine against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum owing to its physicochemical properties. What is advantageous with hydroxychloroquine is that it can be used in high doses for long periods with very good tolerance. Unfortunately, the efficacy of chloroquine gradually declined due to the continuous emergence of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains . Chloroquine is also utilised in the treatment of autoimmune diseases . Yet the activity of the molecule is not limited to malaria and the control of inflammatory processes, as illustrated by its broad-spectrum activity against a range of bacterial, fungal and viral infections [7–۱۰].