نمونه متن انگلیسی مقاله
This study introduces the theoretical and methodological approach of Carbaugh’s (2007) cultural discourse analysis (CuDA) to advance the research agenda on political public relations. I discuss how CuDA, as an extension of the ethnography of communication (EoC), provides clues to unexpected success in an election campaigning. Using the 2016 Hong Kong lawmakers’ election as an empirical example, the most discussed Facebook posts of an election candidate, and 6800 online comments from the public are studied. I identify the socio-cultural meanings that are used and can be used to engage public-to-public election canvassing. This study shows that the prominent discursive hubs of dwelling and relation organize networked publics to canvass. Responding to the socio-cultural turn of the literature, this study grounds the theorization of political public relations in practice. The evaluation of different approaches to discourse also moves the field forward methodologically.
Recent years have witnessed the limitations of public opinion polls in predicting election outcomes. Examples include the unpredicted support for Donald Trump in the United States presidential election, the unexpected ‘Brexit’ vote in the United Kingdom, and the surprising victory of independent candidate Eddie Hoi-dick Chu in the Hong Kong Legislative Council election. Although the pre-election polls provide a predictive trend on the election outcomes, the polling can be influenced by reliance on self-reported data, the potential bias of using landline numbers, the lack of appropriate sampling frames, and a spiral silence effect (Kenett, Pfeffermann, & Steinberg, 2018). There is a gap in the existing polling research on public behavioral data that reflects culturally-grounded discourse in an election campaign. In this study, the term “public” refers to social media users who discuss the issues relating to an election candidate’s election campaign. “Culturally grounded discourse” refers to naturally occurring discussion among social media users situated in a socio-cultural context. Against this background, I propose a socio-cultural approach to advance the theory and method of political public relations practices using cultural discourse analysis (CuDA) (Carbaugh, 2007). Theoretically, I consider political public relations as a communication practice (a recurrent and meaningful pattern of message-endowed action) rather than a specific profession. Existing studies have predominantly framed political public relations as an organizational management process, suggesting that reputation maintenance can help to enhance stakeholder engagement (Painter, 2015; Stromback & Kiousis, 2011). However, the socio-cultural and discursive role of political public relations in an election campaign has rarely been addressed (Edwards, 2016; Stromback & Kiousis, 2011). By responding to the socio-cultural turn of the public relations literature, I conceptualize political public relations as the communication practice between an election candidate and the public, as well as between members of the public on social media during an election campaign. This conceptualization is consistent with Edwards (2016), who argues that the role of political public relations is to both maintain publicity and reputation, and facilitate deliberation in society. This study also responds to the theoretical call from Edwards (2018) and Edwards and Hodges (2011) to take public relations research beyond the notion of purposeful communication by reconsidering the socially interactive nature of public relations practice. Reflecting upon the socio-cultural meanings in situated discursive and symbolic conditions is theoretically and socially important (Edwards & Hodges, 2011; L’Etang, 2005).