The COVID-19 pandemic has affected businesses worldwide, including the hotel industry in Taiwan. This study aims to explore the influence of the perceived threat of COVID-19 on job satisfaction. SPSS software was used for data analysis, and the PROCESS macro was used to test the mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation hypotheses. An online survey (n = 681) was conducted on hotels in Taiwan in 2021, and the results indicate that job stress activation has a mediating effect on employees’ job satisfaction and the hotels’ business performances. Moreover, organizational resilience has a moderating effect on job stress. This study contributes theoretically to a better understanding of the factors that determine the impact of traumatic events such as a pandemic on people's mental health. This study suggests that interventions may be carried out to minimize the pandemic's negative psychological consequences. The implications of this study are also applicable to hoteliers in other affected countries.
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people worldwide. Besides its impact on people’s health, it has restricted people’s lives, from travel to sporting events and even education (Edelheim, 2020; Sandhu and Wolf, 2020). The restrictions on travel thus resulted in low hotel occupancy rates (Gössling et al., 2020; Jiang and Wen, 2020). The Asia-Pacific region saw a decrease of 82% in tourist arrivals in January to October 2020, the Middle East recorded a decline of 73%, while Africa saw a drop of 69% over this ten-month period (UNWTO, 2020).
Job satisfaction refers to employees’ satisfaction with work-related factors, and is deemed "subjective happiness at work" (Choudhary and Saini, 2021). Job satisfaction has been the focus of management research, as it significantly affects employees’ job performance, as well as other managers’ performance indicators, such as customer satisfaction, perceived service quality, customer loyalty, and satisfaction (O'Donoghue and Tsui, 2015). The United Nations World Tourism Organization reported that the business downturn resulted from COVID-19 differs from those in the past; hence, governments and companies need to adopt different measures in response (UNWTO, 2020).
This study explored the influence of the perceived threat of COVID-19 on job satisfaction. The survey results support all three hypotheses. The contributions and implications of this study are detailed.
This study examined the relationship between the perceived threat of COVID-19 and job satisfaction in the hotel industry, specifically considering the mediating role of job stress and the moderating role of organizational resilience. The results of this study support the first two proposed hypotheses, indicating that the perceived threat of COVID-19 is negatively correlated with job satisfaction (H1), and that job stress mediates the association between the perceived threat of COVID-19 and job satisfaction (H2). The results also show that organizational resilience moderates the relationship between the perceived threat of COVID-19 and job stress (H3).
Prior studies show that COVID-19 has triggered various psychological phenomena such as moral harm, extreme anxiety, fear of disease, depression and acute stress (Gibson and Janikova, 2021; Phillips and Kucera, 2021; Lewis and Zauskova, 2021). The results of this study found that corporate employees' perceived COVID-19 threat would indeed lead to an increase in work stress, which is the empirical contribution of this study to the psychological phenomenon of the epidemic affecting people. Furthermore, COVID-19 affects the work of corporate personnel insecurity, job instability and job satisfaction (Nemteanu and Dabija, 2021). The findings of this study also validate the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Those above are the substantial contributions of this research to the academic field.